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CONTENTS

Introduction
Defenation
Vasculogenesis
Types of angiogenesis
Mechanism of angiogenesis
Factors of angiogenesis
Coclusion
References

Ratnakar Behera
Semester II
Roll number 13 ZOO 018
Guided by
Prof. Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
Post Graduate Department of Zoology
Utkal University, Vani Vihar, BBSR.

Introduction
Angiogenesis (Gr. angeion-vessel ; genesisgenerataion) is a normal and vital process
in growth and development. The essential
role in tumor growth was first proposed in
1971 by Judah Folkman.
Folkman described tumor as hot and bloody.

Definition
Angiogenesis is a physiological process
through which new blood vessels are
formed from pre-existing vessels. It is
different from vasculogenesis .

GROWTH FACTOR

FUNCTION

Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)

Promotes proliferation and


differentiation of endothelial cells,
smooth muscle cells and
fibroblasts.

Vascular Endothelial Growth


Factor

Affects permeability.

Angiopoetin 1 & 2 (Ang 1 & Ang


2)

Stabilize vessels

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

Stimulates proliferation of
epithelial cells, fibroblasts,
neurons and astrocytes.

Platelet Derived Growth Factor


(PDGF)

Stimulate proliferation of
neuroglia, smooth muscle fibres
and fibroblasts.

Vasculogenesis
It is the process of formation of blood vessels
during early embryonic development .
It comprises three phases which are as follows.
1. First phase of vasculogenesis
The cells leaving the primitive streak in the
posterior of the embryo become the
hemangioblasts.
2. Second phase of vasculogenesis
Hemangioblasts become condensed and
form a aggregation called blood islands.
Outer cells are called angioblasts and the
inner cells called blood progenitor cells in
blood islands.

3. Third phase of Vasculogenesis


The angioblasts multiply and differentiate
into endothelial cells, which form the lining
of the blood vessels subsequently into
blood tubes and also to a network of
capillaries.

Types of angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is of two types, which are as
follows.
ANGIOGENESIS

Sprout
angiogenesis

Intussusceptive
angiogenesis

1. Sprout angiogenesis
It is the first identified angiogenesis. It is
completed through following steps.
1. Angiogenic growth factors activate the
receptors on endothelial cells present in the
pre-existing vessels.
2. The activated endothelial cells release
proteases that degrade the basement
membrane to allow endothelial cells to
escape from the original vessels wall.
3. The endothelial cells then proliferate into
the surrounding matrix and form a sprout
connecting the neighbouring cells.

4. The sprout move towards the source of


angiogenic stimulus by using adhesion
molecules intergins.
5. Then the sprout forms a loop to become a
full fledged lumen.

2.Intussusceptive angiogenesis
It is also known as splitting
angiogenesis.It has following steps.
1.In the first step, the two opposing
capillary walls estblish a zone of
contact .
2.Second, the endothelial cell junctions
are recognized by