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Pediatric Emergencies

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Fever
Common Causes

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Infections
Neoplasm (cancer)
Drug ingestion
Collagen vascular disease
High environmental temperatures

Emergency Care for


Fever

Ensure BSI
Begin passive cooling

Remove clothing/coverings
Damp towels

No ice
No alcohol

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No cold water baths

Febrile Seizures
common in children 6 months
to 6 years
caused by high fever
history of infection
generalized grand mal seizure
less than 15 minutes

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Treatment
ABCs
protect patient
recovery position
high flow oxygen
suction prn
Passive cooling measures
transport

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Dehydration
Dry lips and gums
Fewer wet diapers
Sunken eyes
Poor skin turgor
Sleepy or irritable
Sunken fontanels

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Care for Dehydration

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Assess the ABCs

Obtain baseline vital signs

ALS backup may be needed


for IV administration

Airway Obstruction

Croup
An infection of the airway below
the level of the vocal cords,
caused by a virus

Epiglottitis
Infection of the soft tissue in the
area above the vocal cords

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Foreign body Aspiration

Croup
barking cough
stridor
wheezing
rales
accessory muscle use
nasal flaring
grunting

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Epiglottitis
severe

dyspnea

stridor
inability

to swallow DROOLING
fever
tripod position
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Foreign body aspiration


Partial

Blockage
coughing
accessory
muscle use
nasal flaring
wheezing

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Complete

Blockage
-

no sound
no cry
stridor
cyanosis
loss of
consciousness

treatment
ABCs
high

flow oxygen
position of comfort
do not attempt to visualize the throat!
do not put anything into patients mouth.

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Asthma
dyspnea
wheezing
accessory

muscle use
nasal flaring
respiratory rate - observe

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Treatment
ABCs
high

flow oxygen
position of comfort
transport

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What is the most


frequent cause of
cardiac arrest in
pediatrics?

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Respiratory
arrest!

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Meningitis
Inflammation of meninges
Bacterial or viral
Permanent brain
damage/death

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Signs and Symptoms of


Meningitis
Fever
ALOC
Headach
e
Seizure
Nuchal
rigidity

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Vomiting
Photophobia
Irritability
Bulging
fontanel

Treatment
BSI (Body substance Isolation)
ABCs
protect patient
high flow oxygen
passive cooling for fever
monitor for shock
Transport
Call ALS for backup if unstable

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Submersion Injury

Drowning or near drowning


Second most common cause of
unintentional death
ABCs
May be in respiratory or cardiac
arrest
C-spine precautions?

Be ready to suction
Keep warm

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Poisoning

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Poisoning is common in children


Ask specific questions of caregivers
Focus on the ABCs
Give oxygen
Provide transport
Childs condition could change at
any time

Sudden Infant Death


Syndrome
SIDS - crib death

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SIDS
Definition

- unexplained death
of an apparently healthy infant.
7500+ cases per year in U.S.
Leading cause of death in
infants <1 year old
more cases in winter months

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Sudden Infant Death


Syndrome (SIDS)

Several known risk factors:

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Mother younger than 20 years old


Mother smoked during pregnancy
Low birth weight
Putting babies to sleep on stomach
Siblings of SIDS babies

Child Abuse

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Any improper or excessive action


that injures or harms a child or infant
physical, sexual, emotional abuse
and neglect
More than 2 million cases reported
annually
Be aware of signs of child abuse and
report it to authorities

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Emergency Medical
Care

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ABCs

Transport if you suspect child


abuse

Do not make accusations

EMT-Bs must report all


suspected cases of child
abuse

Sexual Abuse

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Children of any age or either


gender can be victims

Limit examination

Do not allow child to wash,


urinate, or defecate

Document carefully

Transport

Thank you

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