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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

OF MICROCONTROLLER
BASED PROTOTYPE OF
UNDERGROUND FAULT
DETECTOR
Prepared By :

Guided By :

Kumbhani Bhautik A.

Prof. Deepak C. Bhonsle

Vekariya Nandik M.

Prof. Chetan K. Lad

Kaneriya Suresh G.
Yadav Shailesh U.
Chaudhari Rahul R.

CONTENT

Introduction

Abstract

Literature survey

Industry contact detail

Work flow

Block diagram

Conclusion

Suggestions

But When any fault occur in Cable. Now the world is become digitalized so the project is intended to detect the location of fault in digital way. heavy rainfall as well as pollution.  Fault in cable is represented as: • Inconsistency. So we will move to find the exact location of fault. • Caused by breaking of conductor& failure of insulation.INTRODUCTION  Till last decades cables were made to lay overhead& currently it is lay to underground cable which is superior to earlier method. Because the underground cable are not affected by any adverse weather condition such as storm. • Current is diverted from the intended path. snow. then it is difficult to locate fault. of . •Weakness or non-homogeneity that affect performance cable.

The proposed system is to find the exact location of the fault.  The project uses the standard concept of Ohms law i. While a fault occurs for some reason.e. when a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor (Cable lines).ABSTRACT  The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from base station in kilometers. then current would vary depending upon the location of fault in the cable. the voltage across series resistors changes accordingly.. which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller of 8051 family would display in kilometers . The underground cable system is a common practice followed in many urban areas.  In case there is a short circuit (Line to Ground). at that time the repairing process related to that particular cable is difficult due to not knowing the exact location of the cable fault.

fault location. The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KM’s and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same.  Further this project can be enhanced by using capacitor in an ac circuit to measure the impedance which can even locate the open circuited cable.  Keywords— Underground cable . fault detection.voltage break down. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is displayed on a LCD interfaced to the microcontroller. unlike the short circuited fault only using resistors in DC circuit as followed in the above proposed project. . location methods. prototype. microcontroller.

” Development of a Prototype Underground Cable Fault Detector” International Journal of Electrical. 2014 http://www. This prototype uses the simple concept of OHMs law. this can lead to a voltage breakdown. In this method the short circuit fault at a particular distance in the underground cable can be located using simple concepts of OHM’s law enables to rectify fault efficiently.LITERATURE SURVEY  o Dhivya Dharani .in/journal_ijeecs/pdf/vol2_iss7/4. Volume -2. Issue-7. India. Coimbatore.irdindia. the cable must first be tested for faults. Sri Shakti Institute of Engineering and Technology. If allowed to persist. ISSN (Online): 2347-2820.pdf Cable faults are damage to cables which affects the resistance in the cable. Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS).A & Sowmya. To locate a fault in the cable.T. .

jsp%3Farnumber%3D5522159 In this paper.ieee. ..  Tamer A.jsp?reload=true&tp=&arnumb er=5522159&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.Egypt. Abdel-Maksoud I. For fault location computation.”AN ACCURATE FAULT LOCATOR FOR UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS USING MODIFIED APPARENTIMPEDANCE CALCULATION” Electrical Engineering Dept. Shebin ElKom. Menoufiya University.ieee. kawady. in particular. The proposed algorithm in this paper shows a high performance for locating faults in underground distribution feeders. Faculty of Engineering. the considerable charging currents play a basic role affecting most of the known single-end computational fault location schemes. Taalab and Mahmoud ElSad. The algorithm is able to precisely calculate the fault distance depending on modifying the basic apparent impedance approach to cope with the aforementioned characteristics of cable segments.org%2Fxpls%2Fab s_all. http ://ieeexplore.org/xpl/login. a new fault location algorithm is proposed for underground cables in particular.

-2015  http ://www.” UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DISTANCE LOCATOR” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEAR CHAND TECHNOLOGY[IJIERT] NOVATEURPUBLICATIONS.C. .In this paper we detect the exact location of short circuit fault in the underground cable from Feeder end in km by using microcontroller8051.P. ISSUE 4APR.ISSN: 23943696 VOLUME 2.For this we use simple concept of OHM’s law so Fault can be easily detected and repaired. Prof.E. The aim of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from base station in kilo-meters. This project uses the simple concept of ohm’s law.ijiert.O.Indapur.pdf This paper proposes fault location model for underground power cable using microcontroller.S.org/admin/papers/1429469524_Volume%202%20Issue 4..B.R.Suryawanshi R.

(Washington) : U. including different types of methods like frequency domain reflection . Conroy. George J.pdf This Bureau of mines publications describes several faults locators and methods . 1978. Dept.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38728/m2/1/high_res d/metadc38728. Bureau of mines.the Murray loop method.unt. Conroy.an infrared method .S.library. Bureau of Mines research on trailing-cable-fault locators / by George J.  http://digital. the bureau of mines has been conducting research into this method and improve mine safety and safe location of trailing-cable faults. . Of the interior.

The added advantage of that it shows the type of fault occurred on LCD and at the same time keeps the circuit in isolation until the fault is cleared.org/docs/technical-research-paper-microcontroller-base d-fault-detector. “Microcontroller based Fault Detector” International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology Volume 1. October. MCB’s and Relays in near future . It is a totally new design in the market and it will be a substitute to ELCB’s.pdf Design Approach: The design methodology involves the use of microcontroller in conjugation with the relay circuitry with display on a LCD screen.ijoart. Issue 5. ISSN 2278-7763. .  http ://www.2012 .

 Contact frequency :Monthly . D G Patel  Designation of the contact person : Chief Engg.INDUSTRY CONTACT DETAIL  Name of the industry : DGVCL  Name of the contact person : Mr.

WORK FLOW  Work till the end of first session  Found industry related project  Title selection  Abstract Formalization  Study about different component .

BLOCK DIAGRAM .

Software o o Requirements Keill Compiler Language: Embedded C or Assembly Hardware o o o o o o o o o o o o Requirements Microcontroller LCD ADC Relays Relay Driver Transformers Diodes Regulator Resistors Capacitors LEDs Switches. .

The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KMs and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same. .PART OF BLOCK DIAGRAM  The project uses the simple concept of OHMs law where a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor.  DC power supply part: DC power supply part consist of ac supply of 230v is step-down using transformer. bridge rectifier converts ac signal to dc & regulator is used to produce constant dc voltage. The current would vary depending upon the length of fault of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG etc.  This is proposed model of underground cable fault distance locator using microcontroller. The series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller would display the same in Kilo meters. It is classified in four parts .

This part senses the change in current by sensing the voltage drop. The microcontroller also forms part of the controlling unit and makes necessary calculations regarding the distance of the fault.Current sensing part of cable represented as set of resistors &switches are used as fault creators to indicate the fault at each location. . The microcontroller also drives a relay driver which in turn controls the switching of a set of relays for proper connection of the cable at each phase. converts this voltage into digital signal and feeds the microcontroller with the signal.  Controlling part: Next is controlling part which consist of analog to digital convertor which receives input from the current sensing circuit. Cable part: The cable part is denoted by set of resistors along with switches.

in case of any fault. Display part: The display part consists of the LCD display interfaced to the microcontroller which shows the status of the cable of each phase and the distance of the cable at the particular phase. .

For this we use simple concept of OHM’s law so fault can be easily detected and repaired.CONCLUSION  In this Project we find the exact location of short circuit fault in the underground cable from feeder end in km by using microcontroller8051. .

WORK DURING A NEXT SESSION  Make a 12v power supply  Develop a ADC circuit  Interfacing of ADC with Microcontroller  Interfacing of Display with Microcontroller .

ANY SUGGESTIONS ? .