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Chapter:

Metals

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Chapter Twenty:

A SURVEY OF THE
REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS

Figure 19.1 The Periodic Table: The


Elements in the A Groups are the
Representative Elements

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193

Figure 7.27 The Orbitals Being Filled for


Elements in Various Parts of the Periodic Table

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194

Figure 7.28 The Periodic Table with Atomic


Symbols, Atomic Numbers, and Partial Electron
Configurations

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195

Figure 7.29 The Position of the Elements


Considered in Sample Exercise 7.7

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196

Reviewing the Periodic Table Regions


Representative elements:
Groups 1A - 8A (filling s and p orbitals)
Transition elements:
Center of the table (filling d orbitals)

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197

Reviewing the Periodic Table Regions


Lanthanides and Actinides:
listed separately, on the bottom of the
table (filling 4f and 5f orbitals)
Metalloids:
separate metals from nonmetals

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198

Representative Elements: Groups 1A-4A

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199

The Atomic
Radii of
Some Atoms
in Picometers

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1910

QUESTION
Theperiodictableisareflectionofanunderlyingrationalethat
manifestsitselfwithpredictable,observablepropertiesofthe
elements.However,thereareoftensharpdifferencesbetween
thefirstelementinacolumnandtheremainingelementsofthe
column.Whichofthefollowingaccountsformostofthose
differences?
1. Thefirstmemberofagroupmaynotbeametalinthefirst
fewoftherepresentativegroups.
2. Thefirstmemberofthegroupisoftenametalloid.
3. Thefirstmembertypicallyhasanunusuallysmallatomic
radii.
4. Thefirstmemberhashighelectronegativity.
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1911

QUESTION
Whatisitaboutthesizeofthefirstelementinmanygroupsthat
causesittoforminmoleculesratherthanaggregatesby
subsequentgroupmembers?
1. Sincethefirstmemberofthegrouphasanunusuallysmall
atomicradii,theytendtohaveverylowelectronegativities
whichdoesnotallowaggregatestoform.
2. Thefirstmemberofthegroupstendtohavestrongnuclear
toelectronattractions,whichkeepstheirelectrons
unavailableforbondingtomanyatoms.
3. Thesmallsizeofthefirstmembersofthegroupmakesit
possibletohaveahighdegreeofpibonding.Thisinvolves
moreelectronsinthebondinginamolecule,whichprevents
muchaggregatebonding.
4. Iamnotsurewhatcausesthis.
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1912

Chapter Metals:

THE GROUP 1A-3A ELEMENTS

Table 20.6 Selected Reactions of the


Alkali Metals

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1914

Table 20.8 Selected Reactions of the


Group 2A Elements

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1915

Table 20.10 Selected Reactions of the


Group 3A Elements

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1916

QUESTION
Whataretheproductsofabalancedequationthatrepresentsthe
reactionofagroup1Ametalwithwater?Note:Mrepresentsa
group1Ametal.
1.
2.
3.
4.

MOH
2MOH
2MOH+H2
M2O2+2H2

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1917

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1918

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1919

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1920

Choose the group that matches the


following description: reacts with Cl2
to form compounds with the general
formula MCl2.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Group 1A
Group 2A
Group 3A
Group 4A
Group 5A

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1921

Choose the group that matches the


following description: reacts with Cl2
to form compounds with the general
formula MCl.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Group 1A
Group 2A
Group 3A
Group 4A
Group 5A

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1922

Chapter

TRANSITION METALS
AND COORDINATION
CHEMISTRY
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2123

Characteristics of transition metals


Partially filled d orbitals in their valence
shells
Very dense with high melting points
Optical and magnetic properties
The atoms are all about the same size
(especially in the second and third
rows)

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2124

The Position of the Transition Elements


on the Periodic Table

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2125

Oxidation states
Transition metals have a wide range of
oxidation states and can easily change
from one oxidation state to another.

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2126

Plots of the First (Red Dots) and Third (Blue


Dots) Ionization Energies for the First-Row
Transition Metals

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2127

Atomic Radii of the 3d, 4d , and 5d


Transition Series

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2128

QUESTION
Ofthefollowingproperties,whichisnottrueofthefirstrow
oftransitionmetals?
1. Theenergylevelsof4sand3dareverysimilar.
2. The4slevelgainselectronsfirst,butnoneofthefirstrow
transitionmetalionshave4selectrons.
3. Thereducingabilitiesofthemetalsinthefirstrow
alwaysincreasefromlefttoright.
4. Inchemicalreactions,thefirstrowtransitionmetalsform
positiveions.

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2129

Electron configuration
Cr and Cu have unfilled 4s orbitals
since there is more stability in the half
or completely filled 3d orbitals.

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2130

Orbital Filling

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2131

Filling the d Orbitals

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2132

QUESTION
Ofthefollowing,whichisthecorrectelectronconfiguration
forthegroundstatechromiumatom?
1.
2.
3.
4.

[Ar]3d6
[Ar]4s13d5
[Ar]4s23d4
[Ar]4s13d44p1

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2133

The Complex Ion Co(NH3)63+

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2134

1
t
c
Rea
What is the expected electron
configuration of Sc+?
Explain.

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2135

Chapter Transition Metals

The First-Row Transition


Metals
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2136

Typical Chromium Compounds

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2137

Typical
Compounds
of Iron

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2138

Typical
Compounds
of Cobalt

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2139

Typical
Compounds
of Nickel

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2140

Typical Compounds of Copper

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2141

QUESTION
Transitionmetalsincompoundstypicallydisplayawide
varietyofoxidationstates.Inwhichoftheionsorcompounds
listedhereisthereatransitionmetalwiththesameoxidation
numberasCrinCr2O72?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ni(NH3)6(NO3)2
Fe(OH)(H2O)52+
MnO4
K2FeO4

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2142

Chapter Transition Metals

Coordination Compounds

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2143

A Coordination Compound
. . . typically consists of a complex ion
and counter ions (anions or cations as
needed to produce a neutral
compound)
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
[Fe(en)2(NO2)2]2SO4
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2144

Naming Coordination Compounds


[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
1.Cation is named before the anion.
chloride goes last
2.Ligands are named before the metal ion.
ammonia(ammine) and chlorine(chloro)
named before cobalt
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2145

Naming Coordination Compounds


[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
3. For negatively charged ligands, an o is
added to the root name of an anion (such as
fluoro, bromo, etc.).
4. The prefixes mono-, di-, tri-, etc., are used to
denote the number of simple ligands.
penta ammine
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2146

Naming Coordination Compounds


[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
5. The oxidation state of the central metal
ion is designated by a Roman numeral
cobalt (III)
6. When more than one type of ligand is
present, they are named alphabetically.
pentaamminechloro
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2147

Naming Coordination Compounds


[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
7. If the complex ion has a negative charge,
the suffix ate is added to the name of
the metal.
The correct name is:
pentaamminechlorocobalt (III) chloride
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2148

QUESTION
Whatistheformulaoftris(ethylenediamine)manganate(II)
nitrate?
1.
2.
3.
4.

[Mn(en)3]NO3
[Mn(en)4](NO3)2
[Mn(EDTA)3]NO3
[Mn(en)3](NO3)2

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2149

The Bidentate
Ligand
Ethylenediamine

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2150

The
Coordination
of EDTA with a
2+ Metal Ion

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2151

QUESTION
HowmanysecondarybondingsitesareusedbytheFeionin
thefollowing:
[Fe(en)2(NO2)2]2SO4
1.
2.
3.
4.

2
4
6
8

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2152

QUESTION
Whichionorcompound,ifany,containsthemetalionwith
thegreatestcoordinationnumber?
[Fe(en)2(NO2)2]Cl;[Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+;K3[Fe(C2O4)3]
1.
2.
3.
4.

[Fe(en)2(NO2)2]Cl
[Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+
K3[Fe(C2O4)3]
Allhavethesame.

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2153