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 Motivation

is concerned
effort toward any goal.

 Motivation


can be defined as a
process that accounts for an
individual’s intensity, direction, and
persistence of efforts towards attaining a

Three key Elements

and relationship among needs. which means “to move”. drives and incentives. . Motivation is process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.  Thus the key to understand the process of motivation lies in the meaning of. The term motivation is derived from the latin word movere.

THE BASIC OF MOTIVATION PROCESS Needs  In Set up Drives Incentives Aims at a system sense. motivation consists of these three interacting and interdependent elements.  Needs  Drive  incentives .

thirst. power.g. hunger.are unlearned but not physiologically based. Curiosity. avoidance of pain. sex. Need for achievement.are unlearned and physiologically based.  General Motives.CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES Primary Motives.g. status and affiliation.are learned e. e. e.  . maternal concern.g. sleep. and manipulation.  Secondary Motives.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  The content theories of motivation: focuses on individual needs. (examines the thought process that motivates individual behavior)  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Equity Theory of Work Motivation  Goal-setting Theory . How different needs may motivate individual behavior.  Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory  Herzberg’s Two Factor Model Theory  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  McClelland’s acquired needs theory  The process theories: focus on the thought or cognitive process that take place within the minds of people.

ascending from lowest to highest.  .  As one need is reasonably satisfied.  This happens because a satisfied needs no longer motivate a person only unsatisfied need impel people to act. this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.( he hypothesized that within every human being. the next higher order need becomes operational.HIERARCHY OF NEED THEORY Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the most well known theory of motivation.)  He concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied.  He saw human needs in the form of hierarchy. there exist a hierarchy of five needs.


SocialLove. other needs will not motivate people. acceptance and friendship.HIERARCHY OF NEED THEORY CONT. . clothing. shelter.Includes food. belongingness. Safety. necessary to maintain life. affection. Unless these need are satisfied to the degree.    Physiological.Security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Physiological needs by their very nature are finite. This need is less finite than the former. thirst. sex and other bodily needs.

recognition and attention.Internal factors such as self-esteem. achieving one’s potential and self. Highest need in the hierarchy. achievement. to grow and to use abilities to fullest and most creative extent. Need to fulfill oneself. mastery and external factors such as status. . autonomy. More dominant at managerial level then at workers level therefore assume considerable significance for managerial motivation.Drive to become what one is capable of becoming. These needs are infinite in nature.fulfillment.  Self-actualization. includes growth. It continues to remain an important need in case of those whose other needs have been reasonably satisfied.HIERARCHY OF NEED THEORY CONT Esteem. sense of competence.

 Another approach to establish link between individual needs and motivation.HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION.HYGIENE THEORY This theory was given by Herzberg’s and his associates.  According to this theory there are two classes of factors.  Extrinsic or Hygiene factors Intrinsic or Motivators .

HYGIENE THEORY CONT. Interpersonal aspect of supervision.. Base wage or salary Relationships with peers and subordinates Status Job security Intrinsic factors areAchievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth . Working conditions.                 Extrinsic factors areCompany policy and administration.HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION. Technical aspect of supervision.


.HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION.  Extrinsic factors  The or Hygiene first set of needs corresponds to Maslow’s two lower order needs physiological and safety needs  Intrinsic  The or Motivators second set of needs called motivators corresponds to Maslow’s higher order social. esteem and selfactualization needs. .HYGIENE THEORY CONT.

 But it also suggest that improving hygiene factors will only decrease job dissatisfaction. the nature of work. When motivator factors are minimal. Hygiene factors are sources of job dissatisfaction. motivation and performance.. .       Motivators are the source of job satisfaction. These factors are related to job content.  They relate more to environment in which people work than to the nature of work itself. high job satisfaction raises motivation and performance. low job satisfaction decreases motivation and performance.  These factors are associated with job context or work setting. The presence or absence of these factors (satisfiers or motivators) are the key link to satisfaction. But will not increase job satisfaction.  The theory suggest that job dissatisfaction results when hygiene factors are poor.HYGIENE THEORY CONT. When motivator factors are substantial.HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION.

 Alderfer argued that there are three sets of needs  E.Existence  R.Relatedness  G.Growth .  He reworked on Maslow’s need hierarchy and labeled it as ERG Theory.ERG THEORY  This theory was put forth by Clayton Alderfer.

Concerned with providing basic material existence requirement.ERG THEORY CONT.  . This group align with Maslow’s internal component of esteem needs & self.  Growth Group.Concerned with the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationship.  Relatedness Group..actualization needs. Existence Group. This group align with Maslow’s social needs & external component of esteem needs. They include Maslow’s physiological and safety needs.An intrinsic desire for personal development.

. eg. So frustration may lead to regression at lower end. he may go back to lower level to earn more money. Frustration.If an individual is not able to satisfy his social needs. the individual’s desire to increase lower level need takes place. .ERG THEORY CONT.  ERG Theory argues that when an higher order need level is frustrated.regression dimension  Maslow argued that an individual will stay at a certain need level until that need is satisfied.


 Researcher believed that these TAT stories correspond to needs that are acquired overtime as a result of our life experiences.MCCLELLAND’S ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY In 1940’s psychologist David I. McClelland and his co-workers began experimenting with Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) as a way of measuring human needs.  The TAT is a projective technique that ask people to view pictures and write stories about what they see.  .

to influence their behavior.  Need for affiliation (nAff): is the desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others..  .MCCLELLAND’S ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY CONT.  Need for Power (nPower): is the desire to control others. to solve problem or to master complex tasks. Need for achievement (nAch): desire to do something better or more efficiently.

 Someone with high need for power seeks influence over others and likes attention and recognition. since each need can be linked with a set of work preferences.  Someone with high need for affiliation will prefer interpersonal relations and opportunities for communication..MCCLELLAND’S ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY CONT. In terms of practical application: This theory encourages managers to learn how to identify the presence of these needs in themselves and in others. . challenging goals and performance feedback.  Someone with high need for achievement will prefer individual responsibilities.

6. Expectancy of performance success Instrumentality of success in getting reward Valuation of the reward in employee’s eyes . VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual.

.VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY CONT. Expectancy Equation: Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence .

 Valence – is the value individual place on various work outcomes (rewards)..VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY CONT. expectancy would be equal to one if the person is 100 percent certain the performance could be achieved.  . A zero at any location on the right side of the expectancy equation will result in zero motivation. Expectancy – is the probability that work effort would lead to performance accomplishment. Instrumentality also varies from 0 to 1.  Instrumentality – is the probability that performance will lead to various work outcomes (rewards). expectancy would be equal to zero if the person feels it is impossible to achieve the given performance level. Valance form a scale from -1 (very undesirable outcome) to +1 (very desirable outcome).

ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY  Equity Theory states that individuals compare their jobs inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. Job Inputs Outcomes Efforts Competence Education Experience Salary Levels Position Recognition .5.


When ratios are equal: state of equity exists – there is no tension as the situation is considered fair When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness Under rewarded states cause anger Over rewarded states cause guilt Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity .ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY CONT..

Stacy Adams has proposed that this negative state of anger provides the motivation to do something to correct it. There can be four referent comparisons:  Self–Inside  The person’s experience in a different job in the same organization  Self–Outside  The person’s experience in a different job in a different organization  Other–Inside  Another individual or group within the organization  Other–Outside  Another individual or group outside of the organization 7-30 .EQUITY THEORY’S “RELEVANT OTHERS”   J.

.  Attractiveness of the referent. The referent an employee choose will be influenced by The information the employee holds about referent.ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY CONT.  Four mediating variable play very important role in choosing these referent Gender  Length of service  Level in organization  Amount of education or professionalism  .

they can make any one out of these six choices to reduce this inequity. or  Employee behaviors to create equity:  Change inputs (slack off)  Change outcomes (increase output)  Distort/change perceptions of self  Distort/change perceptions of others  Choose a different referent person  Leave the field (quit the job) 7-32 . Reaction to inequity  Now when employees perceives inequity..ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY CONT.

ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY CONT..  Propositions relating to inequitable pay: Paid by time: Over rewarded employees produce more with high quality Under rewarded employees produce less with low quality Paid by quantity: Over rewarded employees produce less with higher quality Under rewarded employees produce more of low quality .

.JUSTICE AND EQUITY THEORY Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace.

Distributive justice is most strongly related to pay satisfaction and organizational commitment ..ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY CONT.

. employee trust. . withdrawal from the organization and job performance There is less evidence on interactional justice.ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY CONT. Procedural justice is Strongly related to Job satisfaction.