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WORLD JOURNAL OF

OBSTETRIC &
GYNECOLOGY

NEW DEVELOPMENTS OF
THE EFFECT OF
MELATONIN ON
REPRODUCTION
Fanuel Lampiao, Stefan S Du Plessis
Presented by:
Adipta Kurniawan, S. Ked.
Facilitator:
dr. Maruarar Panjaitan, Sp.OG.
DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRIC & GYNECOLOGY
FACULTY OF MEDICINE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF
INDONESIA
UKI General Hospital
February 29th, 2016 May 7th, 2016

INTRODUCTION
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is
responsible for the regulation of a variety of
central and peripheral actions relate to circadian
rhtyms and reproduction.
Melatonin primarily synthesized and secreted by
the pineal gland
The role of melatonin in human reproduction:
Regulate the reproductive neuroendocrine axis

Increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation


in
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Free radical scavenging properties
Stimulating antioxidant enzyms

This review will provide comprehensive information

CURRENT AVAILABLE EVIDENCE


CONCERNING THE EFFECT OF
MELATONIN ON THE
REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS
Influences reproductive function.
Sexually very active, when melatonin levels
are elevated.
Uses the seasonally dependent to adjust
testicular and ovarian physiology
Uses to advance the breeding season.
Induce estrous cycles
Increase birth
Involved in the selection of sexual partners.
Zebra males with brighter coloured bills are
more likely to be selected by females

PINEAL MELATONIN
BIOSYNTHESIS AND REGULATION

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
(SCN) regulate the circadian
melatonin reproduction.
Melatonin is formed in the
pineal gland.
Melatonin release into the
blood and metabolized in the
liver.

EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON
PUBERTY
Influence on the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH in
humans.
Decline the trigger signals of GnRH.
High nocturnal melatonin secretion in children delays
puberty.
High levels of melatonin have been associated with
amenorrhea.
Decreased GnRH/LH secretion.
Irregularities in hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis
functioning.
Melatonin containing GnRH secreting neurons.
Leads to the down regulation of GnRH.

MELATONIN AND GAMETE


FUNCTION
Testicular function:.
Leydig cells responsible for the production of testosterone.
Regulation of epididymal physiology
Improved progressive motility in human spermatozoa
Reduced the number of static cells
Involved in the modulation of the reproductive
neuroendocrine axis in male infertility
Ovary Function:
Able to pass through all cell membranes and enter all tissues
The larger the follicle the higher the melatonin reproduction
Incresead blastocyst development
Involved in embrio development

EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON
PREGNANCY
Increases intra-follicular melatonin
concentrations
Reduces intrafollicular oxidative damage
Elevates fertilization and pregnancy rates
Regulation of the circadian rhythm in the fetus
Modulating fetal clock gene function
Modulate the strength of affinity gap junctions
in myometrium
Powerful labor inducing forces

MELATONIN AND OXIDATIVE


STRESS
ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) is produced during the
rupturing of the follicle
Contribute generation of the free radicals
Stimulate the scavenging activities
Spermatozoa generate O2, Which dismutates to H2O2
High capability to detoxify ROS
Enhancing the production of endogenous antioxidants
Stimulate scavenging activities
Stimulate antioxidant enzyms

CONCLUSION
Melatonin has multiple physiological roles
Melatonin mediated in hypothalamus and pituitary
gland
Melatonin as an antioxidant
Melatonin reduce oxidative stress in oocyte maturation
and embrio development
Increases intrafollicular melatonin concentration in
women with infertility
Elevates fertilization and pregnancy rates
Melatonin treatment could become a new cure for
improving oocyte and sperm quality in infertile patients

REFERENCES