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P R ES EN TATIO N TO P IC : D EN G U E

PRESENTED

ROLL NO.64

BY RATTAN KUMAR

Contents
1. What is dengue fever
2. Symptoms of dengue fever
3. Characteristics of the Aedes
mosquito
4. Life cycle of the Aedes
mosquito
5. How to prevent the spread of

D EN G U E :

DENGUE IS A FEBRILE ILLNESS CAUSED BY A

FLAVIVIRUS TRANSMITTED BY MOSQUITOES.

IT IS THE MOST RAPIDLY SPREADING MOSQUITO-

BORNE VIRAL ILLNESS.

THE PRINCIPAL VECTOR IS THE MOSQUITO AEDES

AGYPTI, WHICH BREEDS IN STANDING WATER,


COLLECTION OF WATER IN CONTAINERS, WATER
BASED AIR COOLERS AND TYRE DUMPS.

Dengue Virus
1. Causes dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever
2. It is an arbovirus
3. Transmitted by mosquitoes
4. Composed of single-stranded RNA
5. Has 4 serotypes (DEN-1, 2, 3, 4)

S ER O TY P ES :

THERE ARE FOUR SEROTYPES OF DENGUE


VIRUS, ALL PRODUCING A SIMILAR CLINICAL
SYNDROME.

DENGUE HEMMORHAGIC FEVER AND


DENGUE SHOCK SYNDROME CAN OCCUR IN
INDIVIDUAL WHO ARE IMMUNE TO ONE
SEROTYPE AND ARE THEN INFECTED BY
OTHER.

The most common epidemic


vector of dengue in the world is
the Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can
be identified by the white bands
or scale patterns on its legs and
thorax.

Life cycle of th e A ed es
M osq u ito
1-2 days

Larvae

Pupae

4-5 days

Stagnant water

Eggs

2-3 days

1.The virus is inoculated


into humans with the
mosquito saliva.
2.The virus localizes and
replicates
in
various
target
organs,
for
example,
local
lymph
nodes and the liver.
3.The
virus
is
then
released
from
these
tissues
and
spreads
through the blood to
infect white blood cells
and
other
lymphatic
tissues.
4.The
virus
is
then
released
from
these
tissues and circulates in
the blood.

5.The mosquito ingests blood containing the virus.


6.The virus replicates in the mosquito midgut, the
ovaries, nerve tissue and fat body. It then escapes
into the body cavity, and later infects the salivary
glands.
7.The virus replicates in the salivary glands and
when the mosquito bites another human, the cycle
continues.

C LIN IC A L FEATU R ES :

INCUBATION PERIOD
2-7 DAYS

PRODOME
2 DAYS OF MALAISE AND HEADACHE

ACUTE ONSET OF FEVER (BREAK BONE FEVER)


, BACKACHE , ARTHRALGIAS , HEADACHE ,
LACRIMATION , SCLERAL INJECTION , NAUSEA
VOMITTING , PHARYNGITIS , URTIs , RELATIVE
BRADYCARDIA.

R A S H :MACULOPAPULAR RASH ON TRUNK ,MAY


DESQUAMATE ON RESOLUTION OR GIVE RISE TO
PETECHIAE ON EXTERNAL SURFACES.

COMPLICATIONS :-

DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER AND DIC

DENGUE SHOCK SYNDROME


HEPATITIS , CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE OR
EDEMA, ENCEPHALITIS , CRANIAL NERVE
PALSIES, RHABDOMYOLYSIS , MYOCARDITIS.

morrhagic Manifestations of Dengue

n
echiae, purpura, ecchymoses
gival bleeding
sal bleeding
strointestinal
ematemesis, melena, hematochezia
maturia
reased menstrual flow

hemorrhages:

bleeding:

D IA G N O S IS :

DIAGNOSIS CAN BE CONFIRMED BY


SEROCONVERSION OF IgM OR FOURFOLD INCREASE
IN IgG ANTIBODIES TITERS.

IgM/IgG RATIOS MAY BE USED TO DISTINGUISH


PRIMARY FROM SECONDARY INFECTION.

ISOLATION OF DENGUE VIRUS FROM BLOOD OR


DETECTION OF RNA BY PCR.

ELISA KITS DETECT NS1 VIRAL ANTIGEN ALTHOUGH


LESS SENSITIVE THAN PCR.

M A N A G EM EN T:

TREATMENT IS SUPPORTIVE , EMPHASISING FLUID


REPLACEMENT AND APPROPRIATE MANAGEMENT
OF SHOCK AND ORGAN DYSFUNCTION.

PREVENTION:

BREEDING PLACES OF AEDES MOSQUITOES


SHOULD BE ABOLISHED AND ADULTS DESTROYED
BY INSECTICIDES.THERE IS NO VACCINE.

P u rp ose of C on trol
Reduce female vector density to a
level below which epidemic vector
transmission will not occur
Based on the assumption that
eliminating or reducing the number of
larval habitats in the domestic
environment will control the vector
The minimum vector density
prevent epidemic transmission

to

THANK YOU
Reference:
1. http://www.who.int/ctd/docs/dengue.pdf
2. http://www.cdc.gov/
3. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/index.htm
4. www.dengue.gov.sg
5. Davidson Text book of Medicine