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India-Nepal Relations

1954- Border Posts in Nepal under joint
coordination of foreign policy
1965- Exclusive Arms supplier, Transit
1969- Change in transit treaty
1970- Re-evaluation of friendship treaty
1989- Blockade

Cultural Philosophical geographical
PIO in Nepal Madhesi
Trade imbalance.
PMs visit in2014

Trade and commerce
Physical barriers- Khadga Prasad Sharma
Oli and Chinese premier, Railway, Free
trade area.
Belt and Road initiative, Qinghai-Tibet
rail line from Shigatse in Tibet to Gyirong
on Chinese side of the border with Nepal
International airport in Pokhara

Indias official blockade

Personal relations between King
Birendra and Prime Minister Rajiv
Gandhi are reported to be frosty.
1972, saw India annex the
neighboring kingdom of Sikkim in
1974, and later, in Nepal's view,
reduce the King of Bhutan to an
Indian vassal.
Purchase of AA guns from China

Budhathoki Minister of Commerce

and Supply added that leaders
should not compromise the countrys
sovereignty. Internal matters should
be taken care of within the country. If
people are not satisfied, India will get
a chance to play games again, he

Madhesi conflict

Issues with the Nepali

The constitution as promulgated is not inclusive. It
ignores the aspirations andsensitivities of the
Madhesis, the janjatis (tribal groups), dalits and
Violence in the Terai region can spill over into the
bordering Indian areas. Particulalrly sensitive in this
respect is Bihar, which is in the midst ofa crucial
electoral process.
Modi governments feeling of being ignored in the
constitutional process. Address to the Constituent
Assembly in August 2014. Second visit to
Kathmaduduring the SAARC summit in November.

This polarisation will keep Nepal unstable and turbulent, which is

not at all in Indias long term interests. To jump into such a
polarisation by taking sides is neither a prudent policy or
effective diplomacy. Indias effort should have been to nudge
both sides of the polarised debate through quiet and sustained
diplomacy so that an amicable resolution was found. Instead,
Indias policy unfolded in three different stages within the broad
parameters of Prime Minister Modis Constituent Assembly
address in Nepal last year. These stages have moved from being
(i) hands off, to (ii) having a Constitution is better than no
constitution at all and finally (iii) insistence on specific issues.
-S.D. Muni is Professor Emeritus, JNU. A Distinguished Fellow,
IDSA he is a Former Special Envoy and Ambassador of India