. Preliminary concepts section that overviews gives a fairly advanced thermodynamic look at fluid properties and models and boundary conditions. great at stating assumptions of models.
2. Derivation of navier stokes and energy equation along with introduction to non-dimensionalization and explains all the dimensionless numbers involved with viscous flow and heat transfer.
3. Very "follow-able" derivations of many solutions to navier-stokes equations, ie Couette, duct, suction, porous media flows, low Reynolds creep.
4. 100 page of approximate laminar boundary layer model derivations, mostly 2D with introduction to 3D BL's. Still need Schlichting's "Boundary Layer Theory". Would have liked to have more on seperation.
5. The rest of the text goes into the stability of boundary layers, incompressible and compressible turbulent flow, and compressible turbulent boundary layers. I have not gotten this far in the text yet but I'm sure it's well written and technically sound after the reading the first half.

© All Rights Reserved

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. Preliminary concepts section that overviews gives a fairly advanced thermodynamic look at fluid properties and models and boundary conditions. great at stating assumptions of models.
2. Derivation of navier stokes and energy equation along with introduction to non-dimensionalization and explains all the dimensionless numbers involved with viscous flow and heat transfer.
3. Very "follow-able" derivations of many solutions to navier-stokes equations, ie Couette, duct, suction, porous media flows, low Reynolds creep.
4. 100 page of approximate laminar boundary layer model derivations, mostly 2D with introduction to 3D BL's. Still need Schlichting's "Boundary Layer Theory". Would have liked to have more on seperation.
5. The rest of the text goes into the stability of boundary layers, incompressible and compressible turbulent flow, and compressible turbulent boundary layers. I have not gotten this far in the text yet but I'm sure it's well written and technically sound after the reading the first half.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 8

Comments from Section 3-5

October 21, 2010

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department

Florida Institute of Technology

D. R. Kirk

Stokes first problem or the Rayleigh problem: Impulsively started flat plate

Analogous to a conducting solid whose bottom plane is suddenly changed to a different

temperature

At first particles near wall are accelerated by an imbalance of shear forces

As time proceeds, this effect is felt farther and farther from plate, inducing more and more

fluid to move along with plate

Examining y-direction momentum equation shows that pressure is not a function of x

Density, , and absolute viscosity, , do not enter problem independently, but only in

combination =/, which is kinematic viscosity. We will continue to see through this

course that is a much more important parameter in fluid mechanics than absolute viscosity

(except in low-Reynolds number flows).

Heat or diffusion equation is parabolic. Proper conditions to prescribe parabolic equations:

An initial condition for all space

Boundary conditions at two positions in space for all time

Solution is an example of a similarity solution. A similarity solution is one where the

number of independent variables in a PDE is reduced by one

If choice of a trail similarity variable does not produce an ODE, trail is unsuccessful

Even if similarity variable is found for a PDE, must also make boundary conditions on

original problem transform so that new problem makes physical sense

Velocity profile shows that influence of plate extends to infinity immediately after plate

starts moving

At large distances error function vanishes exponentially (actually, erf( ~ -1exp(-2) as

), but there is still a minute viscous influence through out flow. This can be rationalized

influence at infinity by considering molecular model of gas viscosity. Molecules that collide

with plate absorb some extra momentum before returning to fluid. Although for most part,

molecules collide with other molecules several times before getting very far from plate, in

principle, there is some possibility (probability) of molecules traveling to infinity without a

collision.

Diffusion:

Slows as time goes on

Depends on kinematic (not the absolute) viscosity

Independent of plate velocity

Rayleigh problem also applies to flow above a stationary plate when fluid is started

impulsively with a uniform velocity. Solutions are related by a Galilean transformation

History:

Mathematical solution to this problem was first given by Stokes (1851), but now more

often called Rayleigh problem because Rayleigh (1911) used result in a creative way to

derive a skin friction law

Plates effect diffuses into fluid at a rate proportional to square root of kinematic viscosity

Define shear layer thickness, , as point where wall effect on fluid has dropped to 1%

u/Vw = 0.01, ~ 3.64(t)

Example:

Diffusion length after 1 min for water ~ 2.8 cm ( ~ 0.010 cm2/s)

Diffusion length after 1 min for air ~ 10.8 cm ( ~ 0.150 cm2/s)

In terms of viscous diffusion, air is more viscous than water by a factor of about 10

Compare: Boeing 747 flying at 500 MPH, particle travels from nose to tail in s

Y

Y

U exp

sin T

2

2

t y

u U 0 exp y

sin

2

2

for a Stokes oscillating plate

Requires detailed understanding of

complex variables

Y

Y

U exp

sin T

2

2

t y

u U 0 exp y

sin

2

2

Note that the depth at which the viscosity makes itself felt is proportional to , just as

it was in Stokes 1st problem

The second term exhibits a wave-like behavior, with an apparent wave velocity of 2

This interpretation is tied up in the oscillating boundary condition

The physical process that is occurring is viscous diffusion, and Stokes 2 nd problem

does not have a physical wave velocity, although we could trace the depth of

penetration of the diffusion effect as a function of time

Note how the effect of the wall motion is delayed

When wall reverses its motion and generates a net shear in the opposite direction, say

at T=/2, a net acceleration force from viscosity still exists deeper in fluid, say at Y=2.

Only after some time delay does the net shear force within the fluid change sign and

begin to decelerate the fluid.

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