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ACID-BASE I

kusumo hariyadi (KSH)

Water
We typically talk about acid-base reactions in aqueousphase environments -- that is, in the presence of water.
The most fundamental acid-base reaction is the
dissociation of water:

H2O ===== H+ + OH In this reaction, water breaks apart to form


a hydrogen ion (H+) and a hydroxyl ion
(OH-). In pure water, we can define a
special equilibrium constant (Kw) as
follows:

Kw = ( H+) (OH-) = 1 X 10-14

Where Kw is the equilibrium constant for


water (unitless)
(H+) is the molar concentration of
hydrogen
(OH-) is the molar concentration of
hydroxide
An equilibrium constant less than one (1)
suggests that the reaction prefers to stay
on the side of the reactants -- in this case,
water likes to stay as water. Because
water hardly ionizes, it is a very poor
conductor of electricity

Definitions of acids and bases


Arrhenius
acid: generates [H+] in solution
base: generates [OH-] in solution
normal Arrhenius equation: acid + base
<---> salt + water
example: HCl + NaOH <---> NaCl + H2O

Bronsted-Lowery:
acid: anything that donates a [H+] (proton donor)
base: anything that accepts a [H+] (proton
acceptor)
normal Bronsted-Lowery equation: acid + base
<---> acid + base
example: HNO2 + H2O <---> NO2- + H3O+
Each acid has a conjugate base and each base
has a conjugate acid. These conjugate pairs
only differ by a proton. In this example: HNO2 is
the acid, H2O is the base, NO2- is the conj.
base, and H3O+ is the conj. acid.

Lewis:
acid : accepts an electron pair
base : donates an electron pair
The advantage of this theory is that many
more reactions can be considered acidbase reactions because they do not have
to occur in solution.

Salts
A salt is formed when an acid and a base are
mixed and the acid releases H+ ions while the
base releases OH- ions. This process is called
hydrolysis. The pH of the salt depends on the
strengths of the original acids and bases:
Acid Base Salt pH strong- strong pH = 7 weakstrongpH > 7strong-weakpH < 7 weak-weak
depends on which is stronger acid base

pH
What is of interest in this reading,
however, is the acid-base nature of a
substance like water. Water actually
behaves both like an acid and a base. The
acidity or basicity of a substance is
defined most typically by the pH value,
defined as below:
pH = - log (H+)
= log 1/(H+)

At equilibrium, the concentration of H+ is


10-7, so we can calculate the pH of water
at equilbrium as:
pH = -log[H+]= -log[10-7] = 7
Solutions with a pH of seven (7) are said
to be neutral, while those with pH values
below seven (7) are defined as acidic and
those above pH of seven (7) as being
basic.

Solutions with a pH of seven (7) are said to be


neutral, while those with pH values below seven
(7) are defined as acidic and those above pH of
seven (7) as being basic.
pOH gives us another way to measure the
acidity of a solution. It is just the opposite of pH.
A high pOH means the solution is acidic while a
low pOH means the solution is basic.

pOH = -log[OH-]

pH + pOH = 14.00

Strong Acids: These acids completely


ionize in solution so they are always
represented in chemical equations in their
ionized form. There are only seven (7)
strong acids:
HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO3,
HClO4

To calculate a pH value, it is easiest to follow the standard


"Start, Change, Equilibrium" process.
Example Problem: Determine the pH of a 0.1 M solution of
HCl
HCl

======= H+

+ Cl-

0,1 M = 0,1 mol/l = 10-1 H+


pH = - log 10-1
=1

Strong Bases: Like strong acids, these


bases completely ionize in solution and
are always represented in their ionized
form in chemical equations. There are only
seven (7) strong bases:
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, Ca(OH)2,
Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2

Example Problem: Determine the pH of a


0.010 M solution of KOH
KOH ======= K+ + OHOH- = 0,01 mol/l = 10-2
pOH = -log 10-2
=2
pH = 14 2 = 12

Weak Acids:
These are the most
common type of acids.
They follow the equation:
HA(aq) <---> H+(aq) + A(aq)
The equilibrium constant
for the dissociation of an
acid is known as Ka. The
larger the value of Ka, the
stronger the acid.

Example Problem: Determine the pH of


0.10 M acetic acid (HC2H3O2) with the Ka
of 10-5
CH3COOH ===== H+ + CH3COOH+ = V Ka . A
= V 10-5 . 10-1
= V 10-6 = 10-3
pH = -log 10-3 = 3

Weak Bases: They follow the


equation:
Weak Base + H2O <---> conjugate acid +
OH example: NH3 + H2O <---> NH4+ + OH+

Kb is the base-dissociation constant:


Ka x Kb = Kw = 1.00x10-14
To calculate the pH of a weak base, we
must follow a very similar "Start, Change,
Equilibrium" process as we did with the
weak acid, however we must add a few
steps.

Example Problem: Determine the pH of 0.1 M


ammonia (NH3) with a Kb=10-5.

NH4OH === OH- + NH4+


OH- = V Kb.b
= V10-5 . 10-1
= V 10-6 = 10-3
pOH = -logOH= -log 10-3 =3
pH= 14-3 = 11

Acid-Base Titrations
An acid-base titration is when you add a base to an acid
until the equivalence point is reached which is where the
moles of acid equals the moles of base. For the titration
of a strong base and a strong acid, this equivalence point
is reached when the pH of the solution is seven (7) as
seen on the following titration curve:
For the titration of a strong base with a weak acid, the
equivalence point is reached when the pH is greater than
seven (7). The half equivalence point is when half of the
total amount of base needed to neutralize the acid has
been added. It is at this point where the pH = pKa of the
weak acid.

10 ml NaOH 0,1 N + 15 ml HCl 1% pH = ..


100 ml NaOH pH = 12,5 + 50 ml HCl 0,1 N pH=..

Soal-soal latihan : Hitung pH nya


1. 20 ml HCl pH = 2,4 + 80 ml HCl pH = 1,4
2. 50 ml HCl pH = 3,5 + 50ml NaOH 1%
3. Berapa ml HCl 0,1 N diambil untuk membuat 2
liter HCl pH = 4
4. Berapa ml NaOH 0,1 N ditambahkan pada 80
ml HCl pH = 2,4
agar pH menjadi 3,6

1. Hitung pH larutan bila (H+ ) = 2,3 X 10-9


g ion/l
Jawab :
pH = - log 2,3 X 10 -9
= - log10-9 - log 2,3
= 9 0,36
= 8,64

2. Hitung pH larutan 0,1% NaOH 50 ml + 150 ml


air
Jawab : 0,1% NaOH = 0,1 g /100 ml = 0,05
g/50ml
= 0,05 /40 = 0,00125mol/50ml + 150 ml =
0,00125 mol/200ml
= 0,00625 mol/liter = 625 X 10-5 /liter
pOH = 5 log 625
= 5- 2,8 = 2,2
pH = 14 2,2 = 11,8

3.

Larutan 50 ml HCl 200 ppm + 50 air


Hitung pH
Jawab : 200 ppm = 200 mg /liter = 10 mg/50 ml
= 10 X 10-3 mol /50 ml
36,5
= 27 X 10-5 mol/50 ml
+ 50 ml air = 27 X 10-5 mol/100 ml
= 27 X 10-4 mol/liter
pH = 4 - log 27 = 4 - 1,4 = 2,6

Exampl : 50 ml ac 0,1 N + 25 ml NaOH 0,1 N


Ka ac = 10-5

pH= 2,25 H = .
Tulis 2.25 INV Log 1/x

buffer
Syarat-syarat
1. Ada sisa asam lemahnya(buffer asam
Ada sisa basa lemahnya(buffer basa)
2. Di encerkan pH tidak berubah
3. Kapasitas maks bila pH = pKa(buffer as
4. Kapasitas buffer, pH sedikit berubah
bila + asam atau basa sedikit

RUMUS UMUM BUFFER/DAPAR


Fungsi : Handerson Hasselbalh
pH = pKa + log(g)/(as)

PI = POTENSIAL ISO ELEKTRIK


pI = (pKa1 + pKa2) / 2
Rumus ini berlaku untuk asam amino yang
Hanya mempunyai 2 pKa
pI = (pKa1 + pKa2) /2
Untuk asam amino yang mempunyai 3 pKa,
tetapi lebih banyak COOH dibanding NH2

pI = (pKa2 + pKa3) /2
Bila pada asam amino terdapat lebih
banyak NH2 dibanding COOH

I .Arginin
pka1 = 2,5
pKa2= 5,5
pKa3= 8,0

II.Glutamat
pKa1= 3,5
pKa2 = 6,0
pKa3 = 8,5

HUBUNGAN BUFFER DENGAN


DARAH
Bila konsentrasi HCO3-/ H2CO3 = 20
maka pH darah NORMAL 7,4
diketahui pKa = 6,1
1.ACIDOSIS METABOLIK :
DISEBABKAN OLEH PENURUNAN FRAKSI
BIKARBONAT INI JENIS ACIDOSIS KLASIK
DM(KETOSIS), DIARE, KOLITIS, PAYAH GINJAL
Nafas akan dipercepat untuk usaha menuju rasio
bikarbonat as karbonat 20 shg mengurangi tekanan CO3
darah selayaknya.

2. ACIDOSIS RESPIRATORIK
ADALAH PENINGKATAN RELATIF AS
KARBONAT DIBANDING BIKARBONAT
PADA: EMFISEMA,
PNEUMONIA,KERACUNAN MORFIN
3. ALKALOSIS METABOLIK
PENINGKATAN FRAKSI BIKARBONAT
pada obstruksi usus, makan alkali berlebihan

Alkalosis dekompensata nafas lambat dan dangkal


Urin mungkin alkali
Kekurangan K dan Na

4. ALKALOSIS RESPIRATORIK
TERJADI KARENA PENURUNAN FRAKSI AS
KARBONAT
PADA: HIPERVENTILASI HISTERIS
PENYAKIT SSP
KOMA HEPATIK, RESPIRATOR YG TIDAK
TEPAT

Asidosis dan Alkalosis


[H+] = P CO2
[HCO3-]
1. P CO2 meningkat asidosis respiratorik
2. P CO2 menurun alkalosis respiratorik
3. [HCO3-] meningkat asidosis metabolik
4. [HCO3-] menurun alkalosis metabolik

PENDEKATAN FENCL-STEWART
asam-basa
Pendekatan Fencl-Stewart disebut juga
pendekatan fisiko-kimia. Pendekatan ini
berbeda dari pendekatan konvensional yang
didasarkan atas persamaan HendersonHasselbalch.
, SID adalah selisih antara jumlah kation yang
terdisosiasi lengkap(misal Na+) dan jumlah anion
yang terdisosiasi lengkap (misal Cl-)
Yang dimaksud dengan ion kuat adalah ion yang
terdisosiasi sempurna (atau hampir sempurna)
dalam air.

Yang termasuk ion kuat (dalam larutan


biologis) adalah:
Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++
Cl-, SO4- Laktat-

Hubungan antara SID, konsentrasi H+


dan OH Makin rendah SID, makin tinggi [H+] dan
makin rendah [OH-]
Makin tinggi SID, makin rendah [H+] dan
makin tinggi [OH-]

SID adalah imbang muatan bersih dari


semua ion kuat. Untuk tujuan praktis, ini
berarti
(Na+ + K + + Ca ++ + Mg++ ) (Cl- +
Laktat-). Ini sering diacu sebagai
apparent SID atau SIDa.
Perlu dipahami terdapat ion-ion yang tidak
terukur atau tak bisa diterangkan. Pada
orang sehat, nilai SID adalah 40 42
mEq/L (atau 0,040 0,042 Eq/L), pada
orang sakit kritis nilai ini bisa sangat
berbeda.