• The backrub is usually administered after
the patient’s bath. It should be offered to
the patient because it promotes relaxation,
relieves muscular tension, and stimulates
circulation. During the backrub, the
specialist is able to observe the patient’s


• 1. To improve circulation to the back
• 2. To refresh the mood and feeling
• 3. To relieve from fatigue, pain and stress
• 4. To induce sleep

Equipments required: • Basin with warm water (2) • Bucket for waste water (1) • Soap with soap dish (1) • Face towel (1) • Sponge cloth (2): 1 for with soap • 1 for rinse • Big Towel (2): 1 for covering a mackintosh • 1 for covering the body • Mackintosh (1) • Oil/ Lotion/ Powder (1): according to skin condition and favor • Tray (1) • Trolley (1) • Screen .

Check the client's identification and condition • 4.Explain to the client about the purpose and the procedure. Perform hand hygiene • 2. • 5. Procedure • 1. .Assemble all equipment required • 3.Put all required equipments to the bed- side and set up.

8. 7. and put the screen or / and utilize the curtain if there is.Close allwindows and doors. Placing the appropriate position: • 1)Move the client near towards you. • 2) Turn the client to her/ his side and put the mackintosh covered by big towel under the client's body.• 6.Expose the client's back fully and observe it .

Lather soap by sponge towel. Apply the oil or the lotion and massage at least 3-5 minutes by placing the palms: • 1) from sacral region to neck • 2)from upper shoulder to the lowest parts of buttocks . Put some lotion or oil into your palm. • 10.• 9. Wipe with soap and rinse with plain warm water.


Glides are in the direction of the heart which helps push along the flow of blood and lymph. Movements • Effleurage or Gliding or Stroking • Gliding movement in which the hands glide with long even strokes over the body surfaces. .

or pressing the muscles to enhance deeper circulation. squeezing.rolling. Petrissage or Kneading or Milking • It generally involves kneading and compression motions . .

• Compression movement performed with the thumb. Friction or Rubbing • Deep form of effleurage. or the palm of the hand and in circular motion. fingertips. .

. Tapotement or Percussion • rapid and repeated striking of the body as a technique in massage.

• 14. • Report any findings . including date.Help for the client to put on the clothes and return the client to comfortable position. • 12. • 13. Document on the chart with your signature.• 11. time and the skin condition. Replace all equipment in proper place. Perform hand hygiene.

EYE CARE • Cleaning the eye using aseptic technique .

Purpose • To clean the eye • To remove the irritating discharges from the eye • To prepare the eyes for any treatment • To prevent infections .

Sterile normal saline 4.A sterile bowl with sterile cotton swabs 3.Kidney tray and paper bag . Articles • A containing 1.Thumb forceps 5.Mackintosh and towel 2.

Procedure • Explain • Place mackintosh and towel • Arrange articles • Wash hands • Clean the eye from inner canthus to outer canthus • Replace • Wash hands • Record and report .

Perineal Care • Definition: • Perineal care is cleaning the genitalia and surrounding area. .

Purpose: 1. To keep cleanliness and prevent from infection in perineal area •To make him/her comfortable .

Articles • A tray containing 1.Normal saline in a bowl 4.clean gloves 2.A sterile tray with • Cotton balls in a sterile bowl • A bowl with antiseptic solution (Betadine) • Sterile gloves • Artery and thumb forceps 5. Kidney tray and paper bag .A bowl with clean cotton swabs 3.

Procedure -Female • Explain • Provide privacy • Arrange articles • Position the patient -Lithotomy position • Drape the patient • Hand wash • Wear the gloves .

• Clean the area with clean cotton swabs and normal saline • Remove The gloves • Open the sterile tray • Wear sterile gloves • Spread labias with the thumb and index finger of non dominant hand .

• Clean the areas with cotton swabs soaked in antiseptic solution -use artery forceps to hold the cotton and thumb forceps to squeeze the ball -Clean from clitoris to anus -Only one stroke with one swab .

Male .

Procedure • With gloved hand pick cotton ball dipped in normal saline to clean the penis • For un circumcised male retract the foreskin and clean the tip of the penis at the urethral meatus in a circular motion • Clean till the base of glans penis • Wear sterile gloves and repeat the procedure with antiseptic solution • Return the foreskin .

After care • Replace the articles • Wash hands • Record and report .

. Nail care • Definition: • Nail cutting that one of nursing care and general care for personal hygiene is to cut nails on hands and foot.

To make neatness 3. To avoid infection caused by dirty nail . Purpose 1. To keep nails clean 2. To prevent the client’s skin from scratching 4.

Mackintosh (1) 8. Paper bag(1) . Soap with soap dish (1) 3. Kidney tray (1) 9. Bowl with water & bowl for cotton 4.Middle towel (1) 6. Articles • Equipment required: 1. Basin with warm water 7.Nail Cutter (1) 2. Sponge cloth (1) 5.


• 3. Put all the required equipment to the bed- side and set up it. Explain to the client about the purpose and the procedure. • 4. Perform hand hygiene • 2.Assist the client to a comfortable upright position.Gather all the required equipment. • 6. Procedure • 1. Check the client’s identification. . • 5.

.• 1) Soaking • ①Put a mackintosh with covering towel on the bed. • ⑤Dry the client’s hands thoroughly by using the middle towel covering the mackintosh. • ②Put the basin with warm water over the • mackintosh. • ③Soak the client’s fingers in a basin of warm water and mild soap. • ④Scrub and wash them up.

One cotton ball is used for one nail • ③Shape the fingernails with a file. • ②Wipe all fingernails from thumb to 5th nail side by side by wet cotton ball.• 2) Cutting • ①Trim the client’s nails with nail cutters. rounding the corners .

Caring for Toenails • 2) Cutting • ①Cut toenails straight across and do not round off the corners • ②Do not shape corners .

• Replace equipment and discard rubbish. • Perform hand hygiene. .

Hair care .

. Definition • Hair washing defines that is one of general care provided to a client who cannot clean the hair by himself/ • herself.

To make him/her feel refreshed . To maintain personal hygiene of the client •2. Purpose 1. To increase circulation to the scalp and hair and promote growing of hair •3.