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Insulators 101

Section A Introduction

Presented by Andy Schwalm


IEEE Chairman, Lightning and Insulator
Subcommittee

IEEE/PES 2010 Transmission and Distribution


Conference and Exposition
New Orleans, Louisiana
April 20, 2010

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What Is an Insulator?

An insulator is a dam*** poor conductor!

And more, technically speaking!

An insulator is a mechanical support!


Primary function - support the line mechanically
Secondary function electrical
Air is the insulator
Outer shells/surfaces are designed to increase
leakage distance and strike distance

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What Does an Insulator Do?

Maintains an Air Gap


Separates Line from Ground
length of air gap depends primarily on system voltage,
modified by desired safety margin, contamination, etc.
Resists Mechanical Stresses
everyday loads, extreme loads
Resists Electrical Stresses
system voltage/fields, overvoltages
Resists Environmental Stresses
heat, cold, UV, contamination, etc.

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Where Did Insulators Come
From?
Basically grew out of the needs of the telegraph
industry starting in the late 1700s, early 1800s

Early history centers around what today we would


consider very low DC voltages

Gradually technical needs increased as AC


voltages grew with the development of the electric
power industry

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History

Glass plates used to insulate telegraph line DC to


Baltimore

Glass insulators became the norm soon


thereafter typical collectors items today

Many, many trials with different materials wood


cement porcelain - beeswax soaked rag wrapped
around the wire, etc.

Ultimately porcelain and glass prevailed

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History

Wet process porcelain developed for high voltage


applications
Porcelain insulator industry started

Application voltages increased


Insulator designs became larger, more complex
Ceramics (porcelain, glass) still only choices at high voltages

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History

US trials of first NCIs cycloaliphatic based


Not successful, but others soon became interested
and a new industry started up

Europeans develop modern style NCI fiberglass


rod with various polymeric sheds
Now considered First generation

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History

NCI insulator industry really begins in US with field


trials of insulators
Since that time - new manufacturers, new designs,
new materials
NCIs at generation X there have been so many
improvements in materials, end fitting designs, etc.
Change in materials have meant changes in line
design practices, maintenance practices, etc.
Ceramic manufacturers have not been idle either
with development of higher strength porcelains, RG
glazes, etc.

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History

Domestic manufacturing of insulators decreases,


shift to offshore (all types)

Engineers need to develop knowledge and skills


necessary to evaluate and compare suppliers and
products from many different countries

An understanding of the basics of insulator


manufacturing, design and application is more
essential than ever before

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Insulator Types

For simplicity will discuss in terms of three broad


applications:

Distribution lines (thru 69 kV)

Transmission lines (69 kV and up)

Substations (all voltages)

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Insulator Types

Distribution lines

Pin type insulators -mainly porcelain, growing use


of polymeric (HDPE high density polyethylene),
limited use of glass (in US at least)
Line post insulators porcelain, polymeric
Dead end insulators polymeric, porcelain, glass
Spool insulators porcelain, polymeric
Strain insulators, polymeric, porcelain

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Types of Insulators Distribution

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Insulator Types

Transmission lines

Suspension insulators - new installations mainly


NCIs, porcelain and glass now used less frequently

Line post insulators mainly NCIs for new lines and


installations, porcelain much less frequent now

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Types of Insulators Transmission

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Insulator Types

Substations

Post insulators porcelain primarily, NCIs growing


in use at lower voltages (~161 kV and below)

Suspension insulators NCIs (primarily), ceramic

Cap and Pin insulators legacy type

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Types of Insulators Substation

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Insulator Types - Comparisons

Ceramic Non Ceramic


Porcelain or toughened glass Typically fiberglass rod with
Metal components fixed with rubber (EPDM or Silicone)
cement sheath and weather sheds
ANSI Standards C29.1 HDPE line insulator
through C29.10 applications
Cycloaliphatic (epoxies)
station applications, some
line applications
Metal components normally
crimped
ANSI Standards C29.11
C29.19

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Insulator Types - Comparisons

Ceramic Non Ceramic


Materials very resistant to Hydrophobic materials
UV, contaminant degradation, improve contamination
electric field degradation performance
Materials strong in Strong in tension, weaker in
compression
compression, weaker in
Deflection under load can be
tension
an issue
High modulus of elasticity - Lighter easier to handle
stiff
Electric field stresses must
Brittle, require more careful be considered
handling
Heavier than NCIs

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Insulator Types - Comparisons

Ceramic Non Ceramic


Generally designs are Material properties have
mature been improved UV
resistance much improved for
Limited flexibility of example
dimensions Standardized product lines
Process limitations on sizes now exist
and shapes Balancing act - leakage
Applications/handling distance/field stress take
methods generally well advantage of hydrophobicity
understood Application parameters still
being developed
Line design implications
(lighter weight, improved
shock resistance)

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Insulators
101
Section B - Design Criteria
Presented by Al Bernstorf
IEEE Chairman, Insulator Working
Group

IEEE/PES 2010 Transmission and Distribution


Conference and Exposition
New Orleans, Louisiana
April 20, 2010

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Design Criteria - Mechanical

An insulator is a mechanical support!

Its primary function is to support the line


mechanically

Electrical Characteristics are an afterthought.

Will the insulator support your line?

Determine The Maximum Load the Insulator Will


Ever See Including NESC Overload Factors.

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Design Criteria - Mechanical
Suspension Insulators

Porcelain
- M&E (Mechanical & Electrical) Rating
Represents a mechanical test of the unit while energized.
When the porcelain begins to crack, it electrically punctures.
Average ultimate strength will exceed the M&E Rating when new.
- Never Exceed 50% of the M&E Rating

NCIs (Polymer Insulators)


- S.M.L. Specified Mechanical Load
Guaranteed minimum ultimate strength when new.
R.T.L. Routine Test Load Proof test applied to each NCI.
- Never Load beyond the R.T.L.

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Design Criteria - Mechanical
Line Post insulators

Porcelain
- Cantilever Rating
Represents the Average Ultimate Strength in Cantilever when new.
Minimum Ultimate Cantilever of a single unit may be as low as 85%.
- Never Exceed 40% of the Cantilever Rating Proof Test Load

NCIs (Polymer Insulators)


- S.C.L. (Specified Cantilever Load)
Not based upon lot testing
Based upon manufacturer testing
- R.C.L. (Rated Cantilever Load) or MDC or MDCL (Maximum Design Cantilever
Load) or MCWL or WCL (Working Cantilever Load)
- Never Exceed RCL or MDC or MDCL or MCWL or WCL
- S.T.L. (Specified Tensile Load)
- Tensile Proof Test=(STL/2)

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Design Criteria - Mechanical

Other Considerations

Suspensions and Deadends Only apply tension loads

Line Posts
- Cantilever is only one load
- Transverse (tension or compression) on line post loading
transverse to the direction of the line.
- Longitudinal in the direction of travel of the line
- Combined Loading Curve
Contour curves representing various Longitudinal loads
Available Vertical load as a function of Transverse loading
Manufacturers have different safety factors!!!

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Design Criteria - Mechanical

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Design Criteria - Electrical

An Insulator is a mechanical support!


Air imparts Electrical Characteristics
Strike Distance (Dry Arcing Distance) is the
principal constituent to electrical values.
Dry 60 Hz F/O and Impulse F/O based on strike distance.
Wet 60 Hz F/O
- Some would argue leakage distance as a principal factor.
- At the extremes that argument fails although it does play a role.
- Leakage distance helps to maintain the surface resistance of the
strike distance.
Leakage Requirements do play a role!!!

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Design Criteria - Electrical

Dry Arcing Distance


(Strike Distance) The
shortest distance through
the surrounding medium
between terminal
electrodes. 1

1 IEEE Std 100 - 1992

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Design Criteria - Electrical

Define peak l-g kV

Determine Leakage Distance


Required

Switching Over-voltage
Requirements

Impulse Over-voltage

Chart Courtesy of Ohio Brass/HPS EU1429-H

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Design Criteria Leakage Distance

What is Leakage Distance?


The sum of the shortest
distances measured along
the insulating surfaces
between the conductive
parts, as arranged for dry
flashover test. 1

1 IEEE Std 100 - 1992

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Design Criteria - Electrical

Whats an appropriate Leakage Distance?

Empirical Determination
- Whats been used successfully?
- If Flashovers occur add more leak?

ESDD (Equivalent Salt Deposit Density) Determination


- Measure ESDD
Pollution Monitors
Dummy Insulators
Remove in-service insulators
- Evaluate ESDD and select appropriate Leakage Distance

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Design Criteria - Electrical
Application Guide for Insulators in a Contaminated
Environment by K. C. Holte et al F77 639-8
Leakage Distance
ESDD (mg/cm2) Site Severity I-string/V-string
(/kV l-g)

0 0.03 Very Light 0.94/0.8

0.03 0.06 Light 1.18/0.97

0.06 0.1 Moderate 1.34/1.05

>0.1 Heavy 1.59/1.19

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Design Criteria - Electrical

IEC 60815 Standards

Leakage Distance
ESDD (mg/cm2) Site Severity
(/kV l-g)

<0.01 Very Light 0.87

0.01 0.04 Light 1.09

0.04 0.15 Medium 1.37

0.15 0.40 Heavy 1.70

>0.40 Very Heavy 2.11

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Design Criteria - Electrical

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Improved Contamination Performance

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Improved Contamination Performance

Polymer insulators offer better contamination


flashover performance than porcelain?

Smaller core and weathershed diameter increase


leakage current density.

Higher leakage current density means more Ohmic


Heating.

Ohmic Heating helps to dry the contaminant layer


and reduce leakage currents.

In addition, hydrophobicity helps to minimize filming

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Improved Contamination Performance

the contamination performance of composite


insulators exceeds that of their porcelain counterparts

the contamination flashover performance of silicone


insulators exceeds that of EPDM units

the V50 of polymer insulators increases in proportion


to the leakage distance

CEA 280 T 621, Leakage Distance Requirements for Composite Insulators Designed for Transmission Lines

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Insulator Selection
Where do I get these values?

Leakage Distance or Creepage Distance


Manufacturers Catalog

Switching Surge
Wet W/S
((Wet Switching Surge W/S)/2) 60 Hz Wet Flashover (r.m.s.)
Peak Wet 60 Hz value will be lower than Switching Surge Wet W/S

Impulse Withstand
Take Positive or Negative Polarity, whichever is lower
If only Critical Impulse Flashover is available assume 90%
(safe estimate for withstand)

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Insulator Selection

Select the 69 kV Insulator


shown at right.

I-string Mechanical
Worst Case 6,000 lbs
Suspension: 12k min
ultimate

Leakage Distance 42

Switching Surge 125 kV

Impulse Withstand 359 kV

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Insulator Selection
Porcelain 5-3/4 X 10 bells X 4 units

Characteristic Required Available

Leakage
42 46
Distance

Wet Switching
125 kV 240 kV
Surge W/S

Impulse W/S 359 kV 374 kV

M&E 12,000 lbs 15,000 lbs

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Grading Rings
Simulate a larger, more spherical object

Reduce the gradients associated with the shielded object

Reduction in gradients helps to minimize RIV & TVI


Porcelain or Glass

Inorganic breaks down very slowly

NCIs
Polymers are more susceptible to scissioning due to corona
UV short wavelength range attacks polymer bonds.
Most short wavelength UV is filtered by the environment
UV due to corona is not filtered
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NCIs and Rings

Grading (Corona) Rings

Due to corona cutting and water droplet corona NCIs may


require the application of rings to grade the field on the
polymer material of the weathershed housing.

Rings must be:


- Properly positioned relative to the end fitting on which they are
mounted.
- Oriented to provide grading to the polymer material.

Consult the manufacturer for appropriate instructions.

As a general rule rings should be over the polymer


brackets should be on the hardware.

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Questions?

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Insulators 101
Section C - Standards
Presented by Tony Baker
IEEE Task Force Chairman, Insulator Loading

IEEE/PES 2010 Transmission and Distribution


Conference and Exposition
New Orleans, Louisiana
April 20, 2010
IEEE
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American National Standards
Consensus standards
Standards writing bodies must include representatives from
materially affected and interested parties.
Public review
Anybody may comment.
Comments must be evaluated, responded to, and if found to be
appropriate, included in the standard .
Right to appeal
By anyone believing due process lacking.
Objective is to ensure that ANS Standards are developed in an
environment that is equitable, accessible, and responsive to the
requirements of various stakeholders*.
* The American National Standards Process, ANSI March 24, 2005

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American Standards Committee
on Insulators for Electric Power
Lines
ASC C-29

EL&P Group
IEEE
NEMA
Independents
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C29 ANSI C29 Insulator Standards (available on-line at nema.org)
.1 Insulator Test Methods
.2 Wet-process Porcelain & Toughened Glass - Suspensions
.3 Wet-process Porcelain Insulators - Spool Type
.4 - Strain Type
.5 - Low & Medium Voltage Pin Type
.6 - High Voltage Pin Type
.7 - High Voltage Line Post Type
.8 - Apparatus, Cap & Pin Type
.9 - Apparatus, Post Type
.10 - Indoor Apparatus Type
.11 Composite Insulators Test Methods
.12 - Suspension Type
.13 - Distribution Deadend Type
.17 - Line Post Type
.18 - IEEE
Distribution Line Post Type
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ANSI C29 Insulator Standards
Applies to new insulators
Definitions
Materials
Dimensions & Marking (interchangeability)
Tests
1. Prototype & Design, usually performed once for a given design.
(design, materials, manufacturing process, and technology).
2. Sample, performed on random samples from lot offered for
acceptance.
3. Routine, performed on each insulator to eliminate defects from lot.

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ANSI C 29 Insulator Standard
Ratings

Electrical & Mechanical Ratings

How are they assigned?

How is conformance demonstrated?

What are application limits?

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Electrical Ratings
Average flashover values
Low-frequency Dry & Wet
Critical impulse, positive & negative
Impulse withstand
Radio-influence voltage
Applies to all the types of high voltage insulators
Rated values are single-phase line-to-ground voltages.
Dry FOV values are function of dry arc distance and test configuration.
Wet FOV values function of dry arc distance and insulator shape,
leakage distance, material and test configuration.
Tests are conducted in accordance with IEEE STD 4-1995 except
test values are corrected to standard conditions in ANSI C29.1.
-Temperature 25 C
- Barometric Pressure 29.92 ins. of Hg
- Vapor Pressure 0.6085 ins. of Hg
- For wet tests: rate 50.5 mm/min, resistivity 17827m, 10 sec. ws
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Dry Arcing Distance
Shortest distance through the surrounding medium between
terminal electrodes , or the sum of distances between
intermediate electrodes , whichever is shortest, with the
insulator mounted for dry flashover test.

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Electrical Ratings
Product is designed to have a specified average flashover.
This is the manufacturers rated value, R.

Samples are electrically tested in accordance with standard


This is the tested value, T.

Due to uncontrollable elements during the test such as atmospheric


fluctuations, minor differences in test configuration, water spray
fluctuations, etc. the test value can be less than the rated value.

Does T satisfy the requirements for the rating R?


If T/R Yes
where = 0.95 for Low-frequency Dry flashover tests
= 0.90 for Low-frequency Wet flashover
tests
= 0.92 for Impulse flashover tests
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Electrical Ratings
Dry 60 Hz Flashover Data

1400

1200
Suspension Insulator

1000
Flashover (kV)

800
Station Post and Line Post

600

400

200

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Dry Arcing Distance (inches)

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Electrical Ratings
ANSI C2 Insulation Level Requirements
ANSI C2-2007, Table 273-1

Higher insulation levels required in areas where severe lightning, high


atmospheric contamination, or other unfavorable conditions exist

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Electrical Ratings - Application

Customer determines needs and specifies electrical


requirements:
- 60 Hz Dry & wet flashover
- Impulse flashover and/or withstand
- Leakage distance

Does offered product meet customers specification S?


If R S and T R
yes, otherwise no.

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Mechanical Ratings
Sample & Routine Mechanical Tests
are based on the primary in-service loading conditions
STD. No. Insulator Type Sample test Routine test
C 29.2 Ceramic Suspension M&E Tension
C29.6 Pin Type Cantilever -----
C29.7 Line Post Cantilever 4 quad. cantilever
C29.8 Cap & Pin Cantilever Tension
Torsion
Tension
C29.9 Station Post Cantilever Tension, Cantilever or
Tension Bending Moment
C29.12 Composite Suspension SML Tension
C29.13 Deadend SML Tension
C29.17 Line Post Cantilever Tension
Tension
C29.18 Dist. Line Post Cantilever Tension
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Mechanical Ratings

M&E Test Bending Tests


Ceramic Suspensions Composite Posts

Hubbell Power Systems


Kinectrics

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ANSI C29 High Voltage Insulator
Std.
No.
Insulator
Type
Standards
Ult. Strength
QC Test
Lot Acceptance
Criteria
Routine
Test
Ave. Std. dev. = S
C29.2 Ceramic Combined M&E strength X10 R +1.2 S 3 sec. tension
Suspension of 10 units s10 1.72 S at 50% of R

C29.7 Ceramic Cantilever strength X3 R 4 quad. bending


Line post of 3 units no one xi .85 R at 40% of R

C29.8 Ceramic Apparatus Cantilever, tension, & torsion strength X3 R 3 sec. tension
Cap & Pin of 3 units each no one xi .85 R at specified value
Tension
at 50% of R
C29.9 Ceramic Apparatus Cantilever & tension strengths X3 R or
Post Type of 3 units each no one xi .85 R 4 quad. bending
at 40% of R

C29.12 Composite Specified Mech. Load (SML) xi .R 10 sec. tension


Suspension test of 3 units at 50% of R

C29.13 Composite SML test 10 sec. tension


Distribution Deadend of 3 units xi .SML rating at 50% of R

C29.17 Composite Cantilever strength of 1 unit Strength R 10 sec. tension


Line Post Tension test of 1 unit at 50% of R

C29.18 Composite Cantilever strength of 1 unit Strength R 10 sec. tension


Distribution Line Post at 50% of R
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Lot Acceptance Criteria ANSI C29.2
Lot acceptance according to ANSI C 29.2.
Select ten random units from lot and subject to M&E test.
Requirements are:
M&E rating X10 -1.2SH
&
s10 1.72SH
s10 is std. dev. of the 10 units
SH is historical std. dev.

If s10= SH then for minimally acceptable lot, ~ 11.5% of


units in lot could have strengths below the rated value.

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Lot Acceptance Criteria ANSI C29.2

Possible low strengths for ceramic


suspension units in a lot minimally
acceptable according to ANSI C29.2
Coefficient Strength value
of variation, vR at -3
5% 90% of M&E rating
10% 79% of M&E rating
15% 67% of M&E rating

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Lot Acceptance Criteria CSA C411.1
Possible low strengths for ceramic
suspension units in a lot minimally
acceptable according to
CSA C411.1
Requirements
Rating XS 3s
&
Xi R
On a -3 sigma basis , minimum strength that
could be expected in a lot is the rated value
regardless of the coefficient of variation for
the manufacturing process that produced the
lot.
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Lot Acceptance Criteria ANSI C29
Possible low strengths for ceramic units
in a lot minimally acceptable according to
ANSI C29.7, C29.8 & C29.9
Cantilever rating X3 & no xi< 85% of rating

Coefficient Strength value


of variation, vR at -3
5% 85% of Cantilever rating
10% 70% of Cantilever rating
15% 55% of Cantilever rating

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Lot Acceptance Criteria
ANSI C29 Composite Insulators
Random samples selected from an offered lot.
Ultimate strength tests on samples.
Requirement is:
xi Rating
The rated value is assigned by the manufacturer based
on ultimate strength tests during design.
However for a lot minimally acceptable according to the
standard, statistical inference for the strength
distribution for entire lot not possible.
Composite Insulators have a well defined damage limit
providing good application direction.

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Mechanical Ratings Application Limits
NESC ANSI C Table 277-1
Allowed percentages of strength ratings
Insulator Type % Strength Rating Ref. ANSI Std.

Ceramic Combined
Suspension 50% mechanical & electrical strength (M&E) C29.2-1992

Line Post 40% Cantilever strength C29.7-1996


50% Tension/compression strength
40% Cantilever strength
Station Post4 50% Tension/compression/torsion strength C29.9-1983
Station 40% Cantilever strength
Cap & Pin 50% Tension/compression/torsion strength C29.8-1985
Composite C29.12-1997
Suspension 50% Specified mechanical load (SML) C29.13-2000
Specified cantilever load (SCL) or C29.17-2002
Line Post 50% specified tension load (STL) C29.18-2003
Station Post 50% All strength ratings ----------

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Mechanical Ratings Application Limits

Worst loading case load (% Table 277-1)(Insulator Rating)

In most cases , % from Table 277-1 is equal to the routine


proof -test load.

Bending tests on a production basis are not practicable in


some cases, (large stacking posts, cap & pins , and polymer
posts) and tension proof-load tests are specified.

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Mechanical Ratings Application Limits
Composite Post Insulators Combined Loading

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Mechanical Ratings Application Limits
Composite Post Insulators Combined Loading

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Recent Developments for Application Limits

Component strength cumulative distribution function F R


and probability density function of maximum loads f Q.

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Component Damage Limit
DAMAGE LIMIT
Strength of a component below ultimate corresponding to
a defined limit of permanent damage or deformation.
For composites the damage limit is fairly well understood.

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Component Damage Limit
Defining Damage Limit for ceramics more difficult to
define as shown by comparing stress-strain curves for
brittle and ductile materials.

L&I WG on Insulators is addressing this problem now


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Insulators 101
Section D Achieving
Quality

Presented by Tom Grisham


IEEE Task Force Chairman, Insulators 101

IEEE/PES T&D Conference and Exposition


New Orleans, LA
April
IEEE T&D 20, 2010
Insulators
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Objectives of Quality
Presentation
Present ideas to verify the supplier
qualification, purchasing requirements,
manufacturer inspections of lots,
shipment approval, material handling,
and training information for personnel

Routine inspection of the installation

Identify steps to analyze field complaints

To stimulate Quality improvement


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Quality Defined
QUALITY An inherent, basic or
distinguishing characteristic; an
essential property or nature.

QUALITY CONTROL A system of


ensuring the proper maintenance of
written standards; especially by the
random inspection of manufactured
goods.
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What Is Needed in a Quality
Plan?
Identifying critical design parameters
Qualifying new suppliers
Evaluating current suppliers
Establishing internal specifications
Monitoring standards compliance (audits)
Understanding installation requirements
Establishing end-of-life criteria
Ensuring safety of line workers
Communicating and training
All aspects defined by the company plan
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What Documents Should Be
Included?
Catalog specifications and changes
Supplier audit records and lot certification
Qualification testing of the design
Utility-specific testing
Additional supplier testing for insulators (vibration,
temperature, long-term performance, etc)
ANSI or equivalent design reports
Storage methods
Installation records (where, by whom, why?)
Interchangeability with other suppliers product
Handling methods (consult manufacturer)
Installation requirements and techniques
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Proven Installation Procedures

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Handling of Ceramics NEMA HV2-
1984
Insulators should not be dropped or thrown..
Insulators strings should not be bent..
Insulator strings are not ladders..
Insulators with chips or cracks should be discarded and
companion units should be carefully inspected..
Cotter keys should be individually inspected for twisting,
flattening or indentations. If found, replace keys and
retest the insulator..
The maximum combined load, including safety
requirements of NESC, must not exceed the rating..
Normal operating temperature range for ceramics is
defined as 40 to 150 Degrees F..
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Handling of NCIs
NEMA is working on a new application guide for NCI
products. It will likely include

Insulators should not be dropped, thrown, or bent


Insulators should not be used as ladders
Cotter keys for ball sockets should be inspected identically to the
instructions for ceramic insulators
The maximum combined loads should not exceed the RTL
Normal operating temperature is 40 to 150 Degrees F
Insulators should not be used as rope supports
Units with damaged housings that expose the core rod should be
replaced and discarded
Units with cut or torn weathersheds should be inspected by the
manufacturer
Bending, twisting and cantilever loading should be avoided
during construction and maintenance
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Line outage Failures
Your objective is to find the problem, quickly!

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Inspection Techniques
Subjective: What you already know
Outage related
Visual methods from the ground
Previous problem
Thermal camera (NCI live line)
Objective: Answer is not obvious
Leakage current measurements
Daycor camera for live line inspections (live)
Mechanical and electrical evaluations
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Porcelain and Glass Failures
Failures are typically visible or have a
new history or upgrade on the site?
New products may not be your
Grandfathers Oldsmobile, however!
Have the insulators deteriorated?
Perform thermal-mechanical test before failing
load and compare to ultimate failing load
Determine current ultimate strength versus new
Should the insulators be replaced?
Establish internal criteria by location
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Non-Ceramic (NCI) Failures
Cause of failures may NOT be visible!
More subjective methods used for live line replacement
Some external deterioration may NOT be harmful
Visual examples of critical issues are available to you

Imperative to involve the supplier!


Evaluate your expertise to define root cause condition
Verify an effective corrective action is in place
Utilize other sources in the utility industry

Establish subjective baselines for new


installations as future reference! Porcelain
and glass, also!

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What To Do for an Insulator
Failure?
Inspection of Failure Supplier Involvement

What happened? Verification of production date?

Extraordinary factors? Available production records?

Save every piece of the unit! Determination of root cause?

Take lots of pictures! Recommended action?

Inspect other insulators! Safety requirements?

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Summary of Quality
Presentation
In todays environment, this presentation suggests that
the use of a well documented quality program improves
long term performance and reduces outages.

Application information that is communicated in the


organization will help to minimize installation issues and
reduce costs.

Actively and accurately defining the condition, or


determining the root cause of a failure, will assist in
determining end-of-life decisions.

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Source of Presentation

http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/iwg/

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