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Administrative Effectiveness

& Human Resources

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor of Educational Leadership
The University of Texas of the Permian Basin
Presented to:
Charter College of Education
California State University, Los Angeles

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Administrative Effectiveness

The difference between retaining and

losing quality employees is LEADERSHIP
(Lynch, 2003)
What Does Research Say About Employee Retention?

Recent studies have shown that pay,

benefits, rewards, and recognition are
inadequate tools to effectively retain
(Lynch, 2003)
Reasons Given For Staying:

Fair treatment
Exciting work and challenge
Care and concern
Working with great people and relationships
Career growth, learning and development
What Does An Effective Leader Do?

Hire well

Hiring the right people is the first step to

retaining great talent. When hiring be
certain that the applicant understands
the job, organization, and culture.
Characteristics An Effective Leader Seeks:

Being innovative
Characteristics An Effective Leader Seeks:

Sharing Information Freely
Being Supportive
Praising Good Performance
Characteristics An Effective Leader Seeks:

Team Orientation
Team Oriented
Characteristics An Effective Leader Seeks:

Characteristics An Effective Leader Seeks:
Work Orientation
Emphasis on Quality
Recognition for Performance
Taking Initiative
High Performance
Characteristics An Effective Leader Seeks:

Oral Comprehension
Oral Expression
What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Use preemployment assessments

When used properly, assessments

provide insight into an individuals
tendency to perform
What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Consistent and proactive

communication with valued staff

Communicate openly; candidly and

What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Assign a mentor

Immediately upon arriving, assign a

mentor or buddy to a new employee.

Develop a mentoring program.

What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Understand the needs of your team

Create a culture in which your employees

feel valued.

Develop a core purpose and set of

What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Open-door policy

Have an open-door policy whereby

employees are encouraged to stop by
and talk or ask questions, etc
What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Reward and recognize

Rewards and recognition are tools

intended to help retain employees.

Make an art of recognition.

What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Instill accountability

Provide the training needed to help

them be accountable
What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

Support your leaders

Your real success in retaining your

employees will come when you
concentrate on your team leaders and
their interactions with employees.
What Does An Effective Administrator Do?

High-performance and high-retention

cultures succeed in creating an
environment in which everyone is
pulling in the same direction for the
common good of the organization.
(Bufe and Murphy, 2004)
Higher staff morale

Better teamwork

Lower turnover

Happier clients (i.e. children, parents, etc)

Human Resources Management

Call for improved organizational

Performance =

* state testing and accountability systems

* adequately yearly progress

Human Resources Management

Most policymakers are immediately

drawn to making changes in the
instructional program to improve
Human Resources Management

Yet, they often overlook the need to

support these changes by changing
district human resource (HR)
management practices.
(Heneman & Milanowski, 2004)
Human Resources Management

It is thought that HR management

practices affect organizational
performance through employee
performance competencies
(Heneman & Judge, 2003; Shippman, 1999)
Human Resources Management

THEREFORE, building an HR
management system to support the
teacher performance competencies
that define teacher quality requires
developing or adapting a model that
specifies these competencies.
(Heneman & Milanowski, 2004)
HR Alignment Model

In a large urban school district that

employs 4000 classroom teachers,
they refer to this model as the
District Scorecard.
Components of the Alignment

Recruitment: Applicant Pools

Sources of applicants based on

knowledge, skills, and abilities
necessary for performance
Components of the Alignment

Hiring Standards: Interview Score &


Method of assessing likely teacher

performance competency based on
the interview questions asked and the
responses given by the applicant.
Components of the Alignment

Selection: Teacher Certification

Teacher certification/licensing
requirements required for employment
Components of the Alignment

Assessment: Teacher Evaluation

Provide last two years of teacher

performance evaluation (PDAS)
Components of the Alignment

Induction Preservice

Assistance and information provided

to all new teachers hired during the
three-day New Teacher Induction
Academy held prior to the start of
Components of the Alignment

On-the-job preservice:

Teachers receive an orientation to the

teacher evaluation system
Components of the Alignment

Every teacher is provided either a mentor or

teacher buddy for the entire school year.

Each district campus has a mentor program

coordinator who coordinates the program
and serves as the liaison for new teachers.
Components of the Alignment

Professional Development

Professional development opportunities are offered

daily/weekly throughout the year.

Attendance is highly encouraged and is part of the

Teachers end-of-year assessment.
Components of the Alignment

Offer competitive salaries.

Offer supplemental pay for critical

needs teaching fields; grade or
department chair; extracurricular
activities sponsor; etc.
Components of the Alignment
Hiring packages:

Offer other financial inducements,

such as loan forgiveness, tuition
reimbursement, tuition assistance for
ACP teacher candidates.

Recommend housing assistance.

Components of the Alignment


System for appraising teachers


Knowledge and skill building given in

how to conduct and improve teacher
evaluation and performance
Components of the Alignment
Performance Management:

Appraisal, feedback, coaching, goal

setting, performance planning,
discipline, termination

Baldiga, N. R. (May 2005). Opportunity and

Balance: Is Your Organization Ready to Provide
Both? Journal of Accountancy, 199(5), 39-44.

Buffe, B. and L. Murphy (Dec 2004). How to Keep

Them Once Youve Got Them. Journal of
Accountancy, 198(6), 57-61.

Heneman, H. G. III. And A. Milanowski. (Dec 2004).

Alignment of Human Resource Practices and
Teacher Performance Competency.
Peabody,Journal of Education 79(4), 108-125.

L. J. Lynch. (Dec 2003). Keeping the Best. Assoc

Manage, 55(13), 447-461.

Miller, J.S. and R. L.Cardy. (2000). Technology and

managing people: keeping the human in human
resources. Journal of Labor Research, 21(3), 447-