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# Introduction

## Queuing is the study of waiting lines, or queues.

The objective of queuing analysis is to design
systems that enable organizations to perform
optimally according to some criterion.
Possible Criteria
Maximum Profits.
Desired Service Level.

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Introduction

## Analyzing queuing systems requires a clear

understanding of the appropriate service
measurement.
Possible service measurements
Average time a customer spends in line.
Average length of the waiting line.
The probability that an arriving customer must wait
for service.
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Elements of the Queuing Process

## A queuing system consists of three basic

components:
Arrivals: Customers arrive according to some arrival
pattern.

## Waiting in a queue: Arriving customers may have to wait

in one or more queues for service.

## Service: Customers receive service and leave the system.

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The Arrival Process

## There are two possible types of arrival

processes
Deterministic arrival process.
Random arrival process.
The random process is more common in
businesses.

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The Arrival Process
Under three conditions the arrivals can be modeled as a
Poisson process
Orderliness : one customer, at most, will arrive during any
time interval.
Stationarity : for a given time frame, the probability of arrivals
within a certain time interval is the same for all time intervals of
equal length.
Independence : the arrival of one customer has no influence
on the arrival of another.
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The Poisson Arrival Process

## P(X = k) = (lt) ke- lt

k!

Where
l = mean arrival rate per time unit.
t = the length of the interval.
e = 2.7182818 (the base of the natural logarithm).
k! = k (k -1) (k -2) (k -3) (3) (2) (1).

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HANKs HARDWARE Arrival Process

## Customers arrive at Hanks Hardware according to a

Poisson distribution.
Between 8:00 and 9:00 A.M. an average of 6
customers arrive at the store.
What is the probability that k customers will arrive
between 8:00 and 8:30 in the morning (k = 0, 1, 2,)?

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HANKs HARDWARE
An illustration of the Poisson distribution.
Input to the Poisson
distribution
l = 6 customers per hour.
t = 0.5 hour.
lt = (6)(0.5) = 3.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10k23

## P(X = 01k23 )= (lt) e - lt

= 0.224042
0.149361
0.049787
0.224042
k2!
3!!
0!
1! 8
HANKs HARDWARE
Using Excel for the Poisson probabilities
Solution
We can use the POISSON function in Excel to
determine Poisson probabilities.
Point probability: P(X = k) = ?
Use Poisson(k, lt, FALSE)
Example: P(X = 0; lt = 3) = POISSON(0, 1.5, FALSE)
Cumulative probability: P(Xk) = ?
Example: P(X3; lt = 3) = Poisson(3, 1.5, TRUE)

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HANKs HARDWARE
Excel Poisson

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The Waiting Line Characteristics

## Line configuration Priority

Jockeying Tandem Queues
Balking Homogeneity

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Line Configuration

## A single service queue.

Multiple service queue with single waiting line.
Multiple service queue with multiple waiting
lines.
Tandem queue (multistage service system).

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Jockeying and Balking

## Jockeying occurs when customers switch lines

once they perceived that another line is moving
faster.
Balking occurs if customers avoid joining the line
when they perceive the line to be too long.

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Priority Rules

## These rules select the next customer for service.

There are several commonly used rules:
First come first served (FCFS).
Last come first served (LCFS).
Estimated service time.
Random selection of customers for service.

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Tandem Queues

## These are multi-server systems.

A customer needs to visit several service
stations (usually in a distinct order) to complete
the service process.
Examples
Patients in an emergency room.
Passengers prepare for the next flight.

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Homogeneity

## A homogeneous customer population is one in

which customers require essentially the same
type of service.
A non-homogeneous customer population is one
in which customers can be categorized according
to:
Different arrival patterns
Different service treatments.

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The Service Process

## In most business situations, service time varies

widely among customers.
When service time varies, it is treated as a
random variable.
The exponential probability distribution is used
sometimes to model customer service time.

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The Exponential Service Time Distribution

f(t) = me-mt

## m = the average number of customers

who can be served per time period.
Therefore, 1/m = the mean service time.

## The probability that the service time X is less than some t.

P(X t) = 1 - e-mt

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Schematic illustration of the exponential
distribution

## The probability that service is completed

within t time units
P(X t) = 1 - e-mt

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X=t
HANKs HARDWARE Service time

## Hanks estimates the average service time to be

1/m = 4 minutes per customer.
Service time follows an exponential distribution.
What is the probability that it will take less than 3
minutes to serve the next customer?

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Using Excel for the Exponential Probabilities

## We can use the EXPDIST function in Excel to

determine exponential probabilities.
Probability density: f(t) = ?
Use EXPONDIST(t, m, FALSE)
Cumulative probability: P(Xk) = ?
Use EXPONDIST(t, m, TRUE)

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HANKs HARDWARE
Using Excel for the Exponential Probabilities
The mean number of customers served per
minute is = (60) = 15 customers per hour.
P(X < .05 hours) = 1 e-(15)(.05) = ?
From Excel we have: 3 minutes = .05 hours
EXPONDIST(.05,15,TRUE) = .5276

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HANKs HARDWARE
Using Excel for the Exponential Probabilities
=EXPONDIST(B4,B3,TRUE)

## Exponential Distribution for Mu = 15

16.000
14.000
12.000
10.000

f(t)
8.000
6.000
4.000
2.000
0.000
0.000 0.075 0.150 0.225 0.300 0.375
t

=EXPONDIST(A10,\$B\$3,FALSE)
Drag to B11:B26
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The Exponential Distribution -
Characteristics
The memoryless property.
No additional information about the time left for the completion of a
service, is gained by recording the time elapsed since the service
started.
For Hanks, the probability of completing a service within the next 3
minutes is (0.52763) independent of how long the customer has been
served already.

## The Exponential and the Poisson distributions are related to

one another.
If customer arrivals follow a Poisson distribution with mean rate l,
their interarrival times are exponentially distributed with mean time
1/l. 24
9.3 Performance Measures of
Queuing System
Performance can be measured by focusing on:
Customers in queue.
Customers in the system.

## Performance is measured for a system in steady

state.

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9.3 Performance Measures of
Queuing System
The transient period
n
occurs at the initial Roughly, this
time of operation. is a transient
period
Initial transient
behavior is not
indicative of long run
performance.
Time

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9.3 Performance Measures of
Queuing System
The steady state
n
period follows the This is a
Roughly, this
transient period. is a transient steady state
period..
Meaningful long run period

performance
measures can be
calculated for the
system when in
Time
steady state.

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9.3 Performance Measures of
Queuing System

## In order to achieve steady state, the

effective arrival rate must be less than
the sum of the effective service rates .
k servers

## l< m1 +m2++mk l< km

l< m
For k servers Each with
For one server
with service rates mi service rate of m

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Steady State Performance Measures
P0 = Probability that there are no customers in the system.
Pn = Probability that there are n customers in the system.

## Lq = Average number of customers in the queue.

W = Average time a customer spends in the system.

for service.

## r = Utilization rate for each server

(the percentage of time that each server is busy).
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Littles Formulas
Littles Formulas represent important relationships
between L, Lq, W, and Wq.
These formulas apply to systems that meet the
following conditions:
Single queue systems,
Customers arrive at a finite arrival rate l, and
The system operates under a steady state condition.

L=lW Lq = l Wq L = Lq + l/m

## For the case of an infinite population 30

Classification of Queues
Queuing system can be classified by:
Arrival process.
Service process. Example:
Number of servers.
System size (infinite/finite waiting line). M / M / 6 / 10 / 20
Population size.
Notation
M (Markovian) = Poisson arrivals or exponential service time.
D (Deterministic) = Constant arrival rate or service time.
G (General) = General probability for arrivals or service time.
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M/M/1 Queuing System - Assumptions

## Poisson arrival process.

Exponential service time distribution.
A single server.
Potentially infinite queue.
An infinite population.

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M / M /1 Queue - Performance Measures

P0 = 1 (l/m)
Pn = [1 (l/m)](l/m)n
L = l /(m l)
The probability that
Lq = l2 /[m(m l)] a customer waits in
W = 1 /(m l) the system more than
t is P(X>t) = e-(m - l)t
Wq = l /[m(m l)]
Pw = l / m
r =l/m
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MARYs SHOES
Customers arrive at Marys Shoes every 12
minutes on the average, according to a Poisson
process.

## Service time is exponentially distributed with an

average of 8 minutes per customer.

## Management is interested in determining the

performance measures for this service system.
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MARYs SHOES - Solution
Input
l = 1/12 customers per minute = 60/12 = 5 per hour.
m = 1/ 8 customers per minute = 60/ 8 = 7.5 per hour.
Performance Calculations m l = 7.5 5 = 2.5 per hr.

## P0 = 1 - (l/m) = 1 - (5/7.5) = 0.3333

P(X<10min) = 1 e-2.5(10/60)
Pn = [1 - (l/m)](l/m) = (0.3333)(0.6667)
n n
= .565
L = l/(m - l) = 2
Pw = l/m = 0.6667
Lq = l /[m(m - l)] = 1.3333
2
r = l/m = 0.6667
W = 1/(m - l) = 0.4 hours = 24 minutes
Wq = l/[m(m - l)] = 0.26667 hours = 16 minutes
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MARYs SHOES -
Spreadsheet solution

=B4/B5 =1-
=A11-B4/B5 B4/B5

=1-
=B4/(B5-B4) =C11-1/B5 E11 =H11*(\$B\$4/\$B\$5
=A11/B
4 )
Drag to Cell AL11
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Economic Analysis of Queuing
Systems
The performance measures previously developed
are used next to determine a minimal cost queuing
system.
The procedure requires estimated costs such as:
Hourly cost per server .
Customer goodwill cost while waiting in line.
Customer goodwill cost while being served.

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Tandem Queuing Systems
In a Tandem Queuing System a customer must visit
several different servers before service is completed.

Meats Beverage

Examples
All-You-Can-Eat restaurant

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Tandem Queuing Systems
In a Tandem Queuing System a customer must visit
several different servers before service is completed.

Meats Beverage

Examples
All-You-Can-Eat restaurant

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Tandem Queuing Systems
In a Tandem Queuing System a customer must visit
several different servers before service is completed.

Meats Beverage

Examples
All-You-Can-Eat restaurant
A drive-in restaurant, where first you place your order, then
pay and receive it in the next window.
A multiple stage assembly line.
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Tandem Queuing Systems
For cases in which customers arrive according to
a Poisson process and service time in each
station is exponential, .

## Total Average Time in the System =

Sum of all average times at the individual stations

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BIG BOYS SOUND, INC.

## Big Boys sells audio merchandise.

The sale process is as follows:
A customer places an order with a sales person.
The customer goes to the cashier station to pay for
the order.
After paying, the customer is sent to the pickup desk
to obtain the good.

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BIG BOYS SOUND, INC.
Data for a regular Saturday
Personnel.
8 sales persons are on the job.
3 cashiers.
2 workers in the merchandise pickup area.
Average service times.
Average time a sales person waits on a customer is 10 minutes.
Average time required for the payment process is 3 minutes.
Average time in the pickup area is 2 minutes.
Distributions.
Exponential service time at all the service stations.
Poisson arrival with a rate of 40 customers an hour.
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BIG BOYS SOUND, INC.

## What is the average amount of time, a

customer who makes a purchase spends
in the store?

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BIG BOYS SOUND, INC. Solution

## This is a Three Station Tandem Queuing System

(.75)(40)=30
Pickup desk
M/M/2

Cashiers
Sales Clerks M/M/3
M/M/8

W3 = 2.67 minutes

W2 = 3.47 minutes
W1 = 14 minutes Total = 20.14 minutes.
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