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PHILIPPINES

FOUNDATIONS OF
POLITICAL SYSTEM
GEOGRAPHY/PHYSICAL
FEATURES
Land Area:
300, 000 square
kilometer
Land
Boundaries:
NO LAND
BOUNDARIES
CAGAYAN VALLEY
SOUTH WESTERN BICOL
CENTRAL LUZON
DAVAO NEGROS
PANAY AGUSAN
COTABATO
BUKIDNON
Almost half of the
countrys total area is
forested
MINERAL
RESOURCES
Metals
Non-metals
METALS
NON-METALS
Cement Asphalt
Lime Feldspar
Marble Sulfur
Asbestos Talc
Clay Silicon
Guano Phosphate
Rich in maritime
resources
PRINCIPAL CITIES
oMETRO MANILA
oQUEZON CITY
CALOOCAN CITY
CALOOCAN CITY
CLIMATE
Wet
Dry
POPULATION AND
Population:
SETTLEMENT
102,117,552
Population Density:
334 per square
kilometer
Birth Rate: 24.24 per
1,000 population
15 th
80% Roman Catholic
Christians
10% Christian
Denominations
5% Muslim
Filipinos
Hospitable
Practice utang na loob
Loyalty, support and trust
Respectful
Live a simple life
Nipa house
K TO 12 PROGRAM
o covers Kindergarten and 12 years of
basic education (six years of primary
education, four years of Junior High
School, and two years of Senior High
School [SHS]) to provide sufficient
time for mastery of concepts and
skills, develop lifelong learners, and
prepare graduates for tertiary
education, middle-level skills
development, employment, and
entrepreneurship
SALIENT FEATURES
1. Strengthening early childhood
2. Making the curriculum relevant to learners
(contextualization and enhancement)
3. Ensuring integrated and seamless learning
4. Building proficiency through langage
(mother touged based multilingual
education)
5. Gearing up for the future (senior high school)
6. Nurturing the holistically developed Filipino
(College and livelihood Readiness, let
Century Skills
1. Information, media and
technology skills
2. Learning and innovation skills
3. Effective communication skills
4. Life and career skills
HISTORICAL FOUNDATION
Pre colonial
Colonial
Post colonial
PRE COLONIAL
BARANGAY
Basic unit of settlement which
was spearheaded by datus.
Largest stable economic and
political unit
Social Division
Datu and Nobility
Freeholders
dependents
No religious hierarchy
Indonesian traders brought
Islam
Raja or Sultan
COLONIAL
Ferdinand Magellan
Discovered
Philippines in 1521
o Spanish conquerors reigned for
over 400 years
o United States Vs Spain
o Treaty of Paris
o American colonization
o World War II
o Japanese occupation (1941
1945)
o July 4, 1946
POST COLONIAL
o First to experienced
independence
o Provide:
1. powerful wealthy families
2. Political life both violent and corrupt
o Hukbalahap
o Ramon Magsaysay
IMPACT OF COLONIAL
RULE Unitize the 3 region
Proselytize religion
Remodel culture and
society
Trades
Manners
Customs
Language
Habits
The influences from Spain have become
permanently embedded in Filipino culture. The Filipino
people themselves have internalized them. They cannot be
undone anymore. For good or bad, they have catapulted the
Filipinos into the world of Spanish culture, into the world of
Spanish civilization and its products. Nevertheless, it must be
said that the Filipinos did not receive the cultural influences
from Spain sitting down. They responded in a way that
demonstrated their capacity to master the new and to
balance the new against the old, in a way that called for
their capacity to bring values and principles to bear with a
critical and informed judgment, and in a way that called for
them to be able to sift what is essential from what is trivial.
Thus they responded selectively to the novelties the
Spaniards brought with them to the Philippine Islands. The
Filipinos accepted only those that fitted their temperament,
such as the "fiesta" that has become one of the most
endearing aspects of life in these islands, and made them
blend with their indigenous lifestyle to produce a precious
Philippine cultural heritage. (Bauzon, 1991)
Education Social
Government structure
Religion
Economy
Arts
Culture
Tradition
Transportation
SOCIO ECONOMIC AND
CULTURAL VARIABLES: EFFECTS
ON POLITICS
o Scholars equate socio economic
structure, in terms of explaining it,
with the social class of ones
country
o Social class is a group of people
within a society who possess the
same socioeconomic status
UPPER CLASS
Landowners
Highly successful
professionals
Business
professionals
Big business
people
Top government
officials
UPPER-MIDDLE CLASS
o Owner framer over
20 hectares
o Most professionals
o Operators of
medium-sized
business
o Some university
professors
o Middle echelon
government
administrators
LOWER-MIDDLE CLASS
o Echelon
government
workers
o Most professors
o Teachers
o Nurses
o Owners of farms of
3 to 29 hectares
o Small business
people
UPPER-LOWER CLASS
o Factory
workers
o Skilled laborers
o Small farmers
o Store clerks
o Office workers
o Most sari-sari
store operators
LOWER-LOWER CLASS
o Unskilled laborers
o Farmers with less
than 1 a half
hectares
o Most household
servants
o Landless farm labor-
most tenant farmers
o Most physically
handicapped
o Peddlers, scavengers
DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL
CLASS
INDUSTRIALIZATION
o a process of converting to a
socioeconomic order in which
industry is dominant
o Cities drew large numbers of people
off the land, massing workers in the
new industrial towns and factories
o The Philippines and its industrial
sector had much potential before
FLAWS OF PHILIPPINE
ECONOMY
1. Misguided and costly
interventions
2. Infrequently developed
international orientation
3. A tendency to focus on rents
rather than efficiency on poor
support facilities
4. An uncompetitive cost structure
POLITICAL
CULTURE
o Political culture in the Philippines is
heavily influenced by its Spanish
and American colonizers, as well
as by the major events that
happened since its
independence
o Filipino political culture is a
systematically related set of
mental and concrete
constructions. It includes but is not
limited to beliefs, feelings, group-
accepted practices, language
and paraphernalia shared by
large groups of Filipinos as they
produce, allocate and use
political powers within, outside,
and in interaction with the state.
BAYANIHAN
PAKIKISAMA
AMOR PROPIO
UTANG NA LOOB
HIYA
CLOSE FAMILY TIES
DELICADEZA
PALABRA DE HONOR
ETHNICITY
CONSTITUTIONAL
FOUNDATION
Philippines has 6 constitution
1. Malolos Constitution
2. Organic Acts of 1902 and 1916
3. 1935 Constitution
4. 1943 Constitution
5. 1973 Constitution
6. 1987 Constitution
STATE PRINCIPLES AND
POLICIES
o sovereignty of the government
people o separation of
o renunciation of war church and state
as an instrument of o guarantee of
national policy human rights
o supremacy of o separation of power
civilian authority among various
over military branches of the
o service and government and
protection of the autonomy for local
people as the prime government units
duty of the
POLITICAL SYSTEM
o The Philippines is a democratic
and republican State.
Sovereignty resides in the people
and all government authority
emanates from them (Article II,
Sec. 1)
o The Philippines is a republic with a
presidential form of government
wherein power is equally divided
among three branches
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