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Lecture 4

Building Services:I
Water Supply and Sanitation
Used water or liquid waste of a community, which includes human
and household wastes together with street-washings, industrial
wastes and such ground and storm water as mixed with it.

underground conduit used for the removal of sewage

Process of removing sewage.

Sewer System / Sewerage System:

Entire system of conduits and fittings involved is called sewerage
Basic Principle of Sanitation
For better maintenance and easy repairs, the pipes should be laid by the
side of buildings.
In large buildings, kept outside and accommodated in shafts, to avoid their
bad appearance.
Drain should be laid straight; sharp bends and junctions which tends to
become dead ends should be avoided.
The entire system should be ventilated from start to the end.
The house sewer should be sufficient high from the water table to avoid
back-flow and inefficient building drainage.
The house sewer should be contain enough number of traps, at suitable
point for efficient functioning.
Layout should permit cleaning.
High quality of sewer pipes should be used.
Lateral sewers should be laid at sufficient slopes so as to develop self
cleansing velocities
Carriage System
Dry carriage system:
This consists of accumulation of human excreta in
privies and its subsequent removal and
transportation in vehicles to the point of ultimate
Wet/ water carriage system:
In this system human excreta is mixed up with
sufficient quantity of water forming sewage and is
collected in a system of pipes and transported for
subsequent disposal.
Sanitary Fittings
Flushing Cistern
Traps etc.
Bottle traps: used in wash basin.
Nahani Trap: used for floor drainage.
Gully Trap: used between waste pipe and
building sewer line
Grease Trap: placed in the pipe connecting
kitchen with the sewer line.
Intercepting trap: used before a house drain is
connected to public sewer.
Low Flow fixtures and waterless
Calculation of flow rate and water usage
Sewerage units location
Manhole/Inspection Provided at every
chamber change in direction of
sewer line
Septic tank At the end of sewer
line for complete
sewage treatment(In
case of single building)
Intercepting chamber At regular interval of
public sewer line
Drainage system
Separate System:
two set of sewers(waste water pipe and soilage
pipe) are laid.
Combined system:
one set of sewer is laid.
Partially Combined/separate system:
a portion of storm water is allowed to enter in the
sewer system and remaining flow in the separate
set of sewer.
Plumbing System
One pipe system Two pipe System
There are actually two stacks, There are actually Four stacks,
one soil cum waste stack and one soil, one carrying waste
the ventilation stack water, and two ventilation
Sullage and waste water are Sullage and waste water are
collected together collected separately
Waste water can not be used. Waste water can be used for
gardening by treatment.
Suitable where fitments are
scattered i,.e. WC, WB and
baths are widely separated.
One pipe system Two pipe System
Innovative and cost effective sanitation
Eco Sanitation(Eco san)
Bio toilets etc.
Waste Water Recycling

Conserving Water
Water Conservation