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What is ABS
Simple hydraulic braking system
Principles of ABS
Advantages & Disadvantages

Conventional braking system - Wheel lockup

Reduces steering ability - vehicle slides out of control
Anti-lock Braking system (ABS) Driver can break hard-
No locking of wheels
What is ABS ?
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) - automobile safety
Prevent wheel locking
Skidding wheel - less traction than a Non-skidding wheel
Anti-lock brakes benefit
Can stop faster
Steer while you stop
Preventing skidding
Maintain traction
Motivation for ABS development

Under hard braking Ideal system should

Provide the shortest stopping distances

on all surfaces
Maintain vehicle stability and steer ability.
Simple Hydraulic Braking system

Consists of

Master cylinder
Four wheel cylinders
Simple Hydraulic Braking system

pushes Brake
pushes Wheels
Brakes fluid shoes Vehicle
pistons get
Applied from pushed stops
of wheel locked
Master out
Principles of ABS
When brakes applied- vehicle speed comes down
Decrease in vehicle speed not always proportional to decrease in wheel speed
Non-correspondence - Slip
Magnitude measured as Slip ratio

Slip ratio = [(Vehicle speed Wheel speed)/Vehicle speed ] 100%

Slip ratio = 0% : Vehicle speed corresponds exactly to wheel speed
Slip ratio = 100% : Wheels locked - vehicle moves
Best braking action between

If vehicle speed and wheel

speed is the same wheel
slippage is 0%

A lock-up wheel will have a

wheel slippage of 100%

(A)Slip ratio (1) Icy road

(B)Coefficient of friction (2) Asphalt-paved road
between tire and road surface (3) Control range by ABS
Pressure Modulation in ABS

Release and reapply of the brake pedal avoid locking of wheels - avoid the
Antilock braking system does the same
Brakes applied - pressure is quickly applied & released at the wheels - pressure
Pressure modulation prevent the wheel locking
ABS modulate the pressure 15 times per seconds
ABS precisely controls the slip rate of wheels - ensure maximum grip force from
the tyre - ensures maneuverability and stability
ABS Components Overview

1.Hydraulic Unit
2.Electronic Brake Control Module [EBCM]
3.Four wheel speed sensors
4.Interconnecting wiring
5.ABS indicator
ABS components

ABS has four Primary Components

ABS Controller
ABS Speed Sensors
ABS Modulator/Valves
ABS Pumps
ABS systems consist of 4 primary components:

ABS Controller; the brains of the system. ABS Controllers are a

computer that reads the inputs and then controls the system to keep the
wheels from locking up and skidding.

ABS Speed Sensors; there are generally one on each wheel (sometimes
they are located on the differential).
It detects a change in acceleration in the longitudinal direction of the
vehicle and outputs it to the ABSCM as a voltage signal.
ABS Modulator/Valves; some system have separate valves for each
wheel with a modulator to control them. Other systems they are combined.
In either case they work with the controller and the pump to add or release
pressure from the individual wheels brakes to control the braking.

ABS Pumps; since the ABS modulator/valves can release pressure from
the individual wheels brakes there needs to be a way to restore the pressure
when required. That is what the ABS pumps job is. When the pump is
cycling, the driver may experience a slight pedal vibration. This cycling is
happening many times per second and this slight vibration is natural.
Working of ABS

Under normal braking

Brakes applied
No current flow from ECU to hydraulic unit
Solenoid valves not energized brake master cylinder pressure
reaches wheels Vehicles stops
ABS not involved - Still ECU monitors each wheel for lock- up
Working of ABS
When wheel lock-up sensed

Wheel sensors senses a wheel lock-up

ECU sends a current to hydraulic unit
The solenoid valve gets energised
Valve isolates the brake circuit from master cylinder
Stops the braking pressure at wheel rising kept it constant
Working of ABS

Still wheel deceleration is rapid

ECU sends larger current to hydraulic unit

Armature of Hydraulic unit moves faster
Opens a passage : Brake circuit Master cylinder
Pressure in brake caliper reduced
Working of ABS

When wheel is accelerated again

ECU stops current to Hydraulic unit

De-energises the solenoid valve
Pressure is build up
The cycle repeats several times in a second
Vehicle stops safely
Increase pressure
Solenoid 1 During pressure increase mode
of operation fluid is allowed to
Pressure increase flow through both solenoids to
the brake caliper
Solenoid 2
Pressure decrease/Vent solenoid

Brake line under pressure

Brake fluid line not under pressure

Pressure hold

During Pressure Hold mode of

Solenoid 1 operation both solenoids are
closed and no additional fluid is
Pressure increase
allowed to flow to brake calipers

Solenoid 2
Pressure decrease/Vent
Pressure decrease

During Pressure Vent mode

Solenoid 1
the pressure increase solenoid
Pressure increase is closed. The Vent solenoid
opens allowing fluid to vent
into an accumulator chamber

Solenoid 2
Pressure decrease/Vent
Types of ABS

Three types

Four channel Four sensor ABS

Three channel Three sensor
One channel One sensor ABS
Advantages of ABS

Maintain directional stability and control over steering during braking.

Safe and effective.
Automatically changes the brake fluid pressure at each wheel to
maintain optimum brake performance.
ABS absorbs the unwanted turbulence shock waves.
Disadvantages of ABS

Increased braking distances under some limited circumstances

Maintenance cost of a car equipped with ABS is more
The antilock braking system controls braking force by controlling the
hydraulic pressure of the braking system, so that the wheels do not lock
during braking.
The antilock braking system prevents wheels locking or skidding, no matter
how hard brakes are applied, or how slippery the road surface. Steering stays
under control and stopping distances are generally reduced.

1 Effectiveness of ABS and vehicle stability control systems(PDF). Royal

Automobile Club of Victoria. April 2004.
2 Non-skid braking Flight International. 30 October 1953. pp. 587588.
3 Chrysler Imperial Sure Brake system description.
4 "Electronic Stability Control (ESC)" .
5 Heibing, Bernd (2011), Chassis Handbook Springer, ISBN9783834897893
[5] "Speed With Style", Cycle World, June 1992, ISSN0011-4286