2 Axial Loading

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2 Axial Loading

© All Rights Reserved

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CHAPTER MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

2 Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf Stress and Strain

David F. Mazurek

– Axial Loading

Lecture Notes:

Brock E. Barry

U.S. Military Academy

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents

Normal Strain Hooke’s Law

Stress-Strain Test Dilatation: Bulk Modulus

Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials Shearing Strain

Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials Concept Application 2.10

Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity Relation Among E, n, and G

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior Composite Materials

Fatigue Sample Problem 2.5

Deformations Under Axial Loading Saint-Venant’s Principle

Concept Application 2.1 Stress Concentration: Hole

Sample Problem 2.1 Stress Concentration: Fillet

Static Indeterminate Problems Concept Application 2.12

Concept Application 2.4 Elastoplastic Materials

Problems Involving Temperature Change Plastic Deformations

Poisson’s Ratio Residual Stresses

Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics

analyses alone are not sufficient.

forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate.

consideration of deformations in the member.

axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending

loads.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Normal Strain

and deformed axially required to obtain the same

loaded rod. deformation when the

cross-sectional area is

doubled.

doubled when the rod length

is doubled while keeping the

load P and cross-sectional

area A.

P

stress

2P P

P

A 2A A A

2

normal strain

L L 2L L

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress-Strain Test

Photo 2.2 Universal test machine used to test Photo 2.3 Elongated tensile test

tensile specimens. specimen having load P and deformed

length L > L0.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

specimens: (a) with cross-section

necking, (b) ruptured.

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Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

E

E Youngs Modulus or

Modulus of Elasticity

heat treating, and manufacturing

process but stiffness (Modulus of

Elasticity) is not.

Fig 2.11 Stress-strain diagrams for iron and

different grades of steel.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

stress is removed, the material is

said to behave elastically.

occurs is called the elastic limit.

to zero after the stress is

removed, plastic deformation

Fig. 2.13 Stress-strain response of ductile

of the material has taken place.

material load beyond yield and unloaded.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Fatigue

-N diagrams.

at stress levels significantly below

the ultimate strength if subjected

to many loading cycles.

the endurance limit, fatigue

failures do not occur for any

Fig. 2.16 Typical -n curves.

number of cycles.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

P

E

E AE

• From the definition of strain:

L

• Equating and solving for the deformation,

PL

AE

• With variations in loading, cross-section or

material properties,

PL

Fig. 2.17 Undeformed and i i

deformed axially-loaded rod. i Ai Ei

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Divide the rod into components at

the load application points.

component to determine the

internal force

Determine the deformation of deflections.

the steel rod shown under the

given loads.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION: • Apply free-body analysis to each

• Divide the rod into three component to determine internal forces,

components: P1 60 103 lb

P2 15 103 lb

P3 30 103 lb

Pi Li 1 P1L1 P2 L2 P3 L3

A

i i iE E 1A A 2 A 3

1

60 103 12 15 103 12 30 103 16

6

29 10 0. 9 0 .9 0.3

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Apply a free-body analysis to the bar

BDE to find the forces exerted by

links AB and DC.

• Evaluate the deformation of links AB

The rigid bar BDE is supported by two and DC or the displacements of B

links AB and CD. and D.

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500 deflection at E given the deflections

mm2. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 at B and D.

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600

mm2).

For the 30-kN force shown, determine the

deflection (a) of B, (b) of D, and (c) of E.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION: Displacement of B:

PL

Free body: Bar BDE B

AE

60 103 N 0.3 m

500 10-6 m2 70 109 Pa

514 10 6 m

B 0.514 mm

M 0B

Displacement of D:

0 30 kN) (0.6 m FCD (0.2 m)

PL

FCD 90 kN FCD 90 kN tension D

AE

M 0D

90 103 N 0.4 m

0 30 kN 0.4 m FAB 0.2 m

600 10-6 m2 200 109 Pa

FAB 60 kN FAB 60 kN compressio n

300 10 6 m

D 0.300 mm

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Displacement of D:

BB BH

DD HD

0.514 mm 200 mm x

0.300 mm x

x 73.7 mm

EE HE

DD HD

E

400 73.7 mm

0.300 mm 73.7 mm

E 1.928 mm

E 1.928 mm

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Structures for which internal forces and reactions

cannot be determined from statics alone are said

to be statically indeterminate.

whenever it is held by more supports than are

required to maintain its equilibrium.

unknown loads which along with the other

loads must produce compatible deformations.

reactions are determined separately and then

added.

L R 0

Fig. 2.23

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel

bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at

both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:

• Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release

the bar from that support, and solve for the

displacement at B due to the applied loads.

redundant reaction at RB.

and due to the redundant reaction be

compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

and the reaction found at RB.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied

loads with the redundant constraint released,

P1 0 P2 P3 600 103 N P4 900 103 N

L1 L2 L3 L4 0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 109

L

i Ai Ei E

constraint,

P1 P2 RB

L1 L2 0.300 m

δR

Pi Li

1.95 103 RB

A

i i iE E

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to

the redundant reaction be compatible,

L R 0

1.125 109 1.95 103 RB

0

E E

RB 577 103 N 577 kN

Fy 0 RA 300 kN 600 kN 577 kN

RA 323 kN

RA 323 kN

RB 577 kN

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• A temperature change results in a change in length or

thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the

Fig. 2.26 (partial)

thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by

the supports.

• Treat the additional support as redundant and apply

the principle of superposition.

PL

T T L P

AE

coefficien t of thermal expansion

the redundant support must be compatible.

T P 0 T L

PL

0

AE

P AE T

Fig. 2.27 Superposition method to find force at point B of restrained

P

rod AB undergoing thermal expansion. (a) Initial rod length; (b) E T

thermally expanded rod length; (c) force P pushes point B back to A

zero deformation.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Poisson’s Ratio

x x y z 0

E

accompanied by a contraction in the other

directions. Assuming that the material is

homogeneous and isotropic (no directional

Fig. 2.29 A bar in uniaxial tension and a

representative stress element. dependence),

y z 0

• Poisson’s ratio is defined as

lateral strain

n y z

axial strain x x

contraction when elongated under axial load.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading,

the normal strain components resulting from the

stress components may be determined from the

principle of superposition. This requires:

1) Each effect is linearly related to the load that

produces it.

2) The deformation resulting form any given

load is small and does not affect the conditions

of application of the other loads.

• With these restrictions:

x n y n z

x

E E E

n x y n z

y

E E E

n x n y

Fig. 2.33 Deformation of unit cube under

z z

multiaxial loading: (a) unloaded; (b) deformed. E E E

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is

e n 1 1 x y z 1

x y z

1 2n

x y z

E

dilatation (change in volume per unit volume)

31 2n p

e p

E k

E

k bulk modulus or modulus of compressio n

31 2n

negative, therefore

Fig. 2.33 Deformation of unit 0 n 12

cube under multiaxial loading:

(a) unloaded; (b) deformed.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Strain

deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding

shearing strain is quantified in terms of the change in

angle between the sides,

xy f xy

Fig. 2.36 Unit cubic element

subjected to shearing stress. to the previous plots of normal stress vs. normal

strain except that the strength values are

approximately half. For values of shearing strain

that do not exceed the proportional limit,

xy G xy yz G yz zx G zx

Fig. 2.37 Deformation of unit cubic

element due to shearing stress.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Determine the average angular

deformation or shearing strain of

the block.

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress

Fig. 2.41(a) Rectangular block loaded in shear.

and strain to find the corresponding

shearing stress.

A rectangular block of material with • Use the definition of shearing stress to

modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is find the force P.

bonded to two rigid horizontal plates.

The lower plate is fixed, while the

upper plate is subjected to a horizontal

force P. Knowing that the upper plate

moves through 0.04 in. under the action

of the force, determine (a) the average

shearing strain in the material, and (b)

the force P exerted on the plate.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Determine the average angular deformation

or shearing strain of the block.

0.04 in.

xy tan xy xy 0.020 rad

2 in.

strain to find the corresponding shearing

Fig. 2.41(b) Deformed block showing stress.

the shear strain.

xy G xy 90 103 psi 0.020 rad 1800 psi

the force P.

P xy A 1800 psi 8 in. 2.5 in. 36 103 lb

P 36.0 kips

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• An axially loaded slender bar will

elongate in the x direction and contract in

both of the transverse y and z directions.

• An initially cubic element oriented as in

Figure 2.42(a) will deform into a

rectangular parallelepiped. The axial load

produces a normal strain.

• If the cubic element is oriented as in

Figure 2.42(b), it will deform into a

rhombus. Axial load also results in a

shearing strain.

• Components of normal and shearing strain

are related,

Fig. 2.42 Representations of strain in an axially

E

1 n

loaded bar: (a) cubicstrain element faces or E

G

aligned with coordinate axes; (b) cubicstrain 2G 21 n

element faces rotated 45º about z-axis.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Composite Materials

• Fiber-reinforced composite materials are fabricated

by embedding fibers of a strong, still material into a

weaker, softer material called a matrix.

Law but with directionally dependent moduli of

elasticity,

x y

Ex Ey Ez z

x y z

dependent values of Poisson’s ratio, e.g.,

y

n xy n xz z

x x

Fig. 2.44 Orthotropic Fiber- • The three components of strain x, y, and z for

reinforced composite material

under uniaxial tensile load.

orthotropic materials can be expressed in terms of

normal stress only and do not depend upon any

shearing stresses.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4

in. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later

cause normal stresses x = 12 ksi and z = 20

ksi.

For E = 10x106 psi and n = 1/3, determine the

change in:

a) the length of diameter AB,

b) the length of diameter CD,

c) the thickness of the plate, and

d) the volume of the plate.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION: • Evaluate the deformation components.

• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to B A

x d 0.533 10 3 in./in. 9 in.

find the three components of normal

B A 4.8 10 3 in.

strain.

x

x n y n z

C D

z d 1.600 10 3 in./in. 9 in.

E E E

C D 14.4 10 3 in.

1 1

12 ksi 0 20 ksi

10 106 psi 3

t y t 1.067 10 3 in./in. 0.75 in.

0.533 10 3 in./in. t 0.800 10 3 in.

n x y n z

y

E E E

3

• Find the change in volume

1.067 10 in./in.

e x y z 1.067 10 3 in 3/in 3

n x n y

z z V eV 1.067 10 3 15 15 0.75 in 3

E E E

1.600 10 3 in./in. V 0.187 in 3

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Saint-Venant’s Principle

• Loads transmitted through rigid

plates result in uniform distribution

of stress and strain.

stresses in the vicinity of the load

application point.

Fig. 2.47 Axial load Fig. 2.48 Concentrated

applied by rigid plates to axial load applied to

rubber model. rubber model. • Stress and strain distributions

become uniform at a relatively short

distance from the load application

points.

• Saint-Venant’s Principle:

Stress distribution may be assumed

independent of the mode of load

Fig. 2.49 Stress distributions in a

application except in the immediate

plate under concentrated axial loads. vicinity of load application points.

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

circular hole in flat bar under axial factors for flat bars under axial loading.

loading.

max high localized or concentrated stresses.

K

ave

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

factors for flat bars under axial loading.

fillets in flat bar under axial loading.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Determine the geometric ratios and

find the stress concentration factor

from Figure 2.52.

Determine the largest axial load P

that can be safely supported by a • Find the allowable average normal

flat steel bar consisting of two stress using the material allowable

portions, both 10 mm thick, and normal stress and the stress

respectively 40 and 60 mm wide, concentration factor.

connected by fillets of radius r = 8 • Apply the definition of normal stress to

mm. Assume an allowable normal find the allowable load.

stress of 165 MPa.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Determine the geometric ratios and

find the stress concentration factor

from Figure 2.52.

D 60 mm r 8 mm

1.50 0.20

d 40 mm d 40 mm

K 1.82

• Find the allowable average normal

stress using the material allowable

normal stress and the stress

concentration factor.

max 165 MPa

ave 90.7 MPa

K 1.82

• Apply the definition of normal stress

factors for flat bars under axial loading. to find the allowable load.

P A ave 40 mm10 mm90.7 MPa

36.3 103 N

P 36.3 kN

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Elastoplastic Materials

• Previous analyses based on assumption of

linear stress-strain relationship, i.e.,

stresses below the yield stress

• Assumption is good for brittle material

which rupture without yielding

• If the yield stress of ductile materials is

exceeded, then plastic deformations occur

• Analysis of plastic deformations is

simplified by assuming an idealized

Fig. 2.53 Stress-strain diagram for an elastoplastic material

idealized elastoplastic material.

are divided into elastic and plastic ranges

• Permanent deformations result from

loading beyond the yield stress

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Plastic Deformations

P ave A stress is less than yield stress

K

A stress at the maximum elastic

PY Y

K loading

elastic load, a region of plastic

deformations develop near the hole

region expands until the section is at

K PY

a uniform stress equal to the yield

stress

Fig. 2.56 Distribution of stresses in

elastic-perfectly plastic material under

increasing load.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Residual Stresses

beyond its yield stress and then unloaded, it is permanently

deformed but all stresses disappear. It should not be

assumed that this will always be the case.

• Residual stresses will remain in a structure after

loading and unloading if

- only part of the structure undergoes plastic

deformation

- different parts of the structure undergo different

plastic deformations

cooling of structures or structural elements

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

of the same length. The ends of the rod

and tube are attached to a rigid support

on one side and a rigid plate on the

other. The load on the rod-tube

assembly is increased from zero to 5.7

kips and decreased back to zero. Fig. 2.54(a) Concentric rod-tube

assembly axially loaded by rigid plate.

a) draw a load-deflection diagram

for the rod-tube assembly Ar 0.075 in.2 At 0.100 in.2

elongation σ r Y 36 ksi σt Y 45 ksi

d) calculate the residual stresses in

the rod and tube.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

a) Draw a load-deflection diagram for the rod-tube

assembly

r Y 36 103 psi

δr Y r Y L L 30 in.

Er 30 10 psi

6

36 10-3 in.

t Y 45 103 psi

δt Y t Y L L 30 in.

Et 15 10 psi

6

90 10-3 in.

Fig. 2.55 (a) Rod load-deflection response

with elastic unloading (red dashed line). (b)

Tube load-deflection response. Given loading P Pr Pt

does not yield tube so unloading is along the

original elastic loading line. (c) Combined r t

rod-tube assembly load deflection response

with elastic unloading (red dashed line).

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 - 41

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16

• At a load of P = 5.7 kips, the rod has reached the plastic

range while the tube is still in the elastic range

Pr Pr Y 2.7 kips

Pt P Pr 5.7 2.7 kips 3.0 kips

Pt 3.0 kips

t 2

30 ksi

At 0.1in

t 30 103 psi

t t L L 30 in. max t 60 10 3 in.

Et 15 106 psi

4.5 kips

m -3

125 kips in. slope

36 10 in.

Pmax 5.7 kips

Fig. 2.55 (a) Rod load-deflection response

with elastic unloading (red dashed line). (b)

45.6 10 3 in.

Tube load-deflection response. Given loading

m 125 kips in.

does not yield tube so unloading is along the

original elastic loading line. (c) Combined p max 60 45.6 10 3 in.

rod-tube assembly load deflection response p 14.4 10 3 in.

with elastic unloading (red dashed line).

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Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Calculate the residual stresses in the rod and tube.

by unloading and add them to the maximum stresses.

1.52 103 in. in.

L 30 in.

t Et 1.52 103 15 106 psi 22.8 ksi

Fig. 2.55 (a) Rod load-deflection response residual,t t t 30 22.8 ksi 7.2 ksi

with elastic unloading (red dashed line). (b)

Tube load-deflection response. Given loading

does not yield tube so unloading is along the

original elastic loading line. (c) Combined

rod-tube assembly load deflection response

with elastic unloading (red dashed line).

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 - 43

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