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Seventh Edition

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
2 Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf Stress and Strain
David F. Mazurek
– Axial Loading
Lecture Notes:
Brock E. Barry
U.S. Military Academy

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Contents

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading Multiaxial Loading: Generalized


Normal Strain Hooke’s Law
Stress-Strain Test Dilatation: Bulk Modulus
Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials Shearing Strain
Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials Concept Application 2.10
Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity Relation Among E, n, and G
Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior Composite Materials
Fatigue Sample Problem 2.5
Deformations Under Axial Loading Saint-Venant’s Principle
Concept Application 2.1 Stress Concentration: Hole
Sample Problem 2.1 Stress Concentration: Fillet
Static Indeterminate Problems Concept Application 2.12
Concept Application 2.4 Elastoplastic Materials
Problems Involving Temperature Change Plastic Deformations
Poisson’s Ratio Residual Stresses
Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
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Stress & Strain: Axial Loading

• Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in


the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics
analyses alone are not sufficient.

• Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member


forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate.

• Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires


consideration of deformations in the member.

• Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under


axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending
loads.

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Normal Strain

Fig. 2.1 Undeformed Fig. 2.3 Twice the load is


and deformed axially required to obtain the same
loaded rod. deformation  when the
cross-sectional area is
doubled.

Fig. 2.4 The deformation is


doubled when the rod length
is doubled while keeping the
load P and cross-sectional
area A.

P
  stress 
2P P
 
P
A 2A A A
  2 
  normal strain   
L L 2L L
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Stress-Strain Test

Photo 2.2 Universal test machine used to test Photo 2.3 Elongated tensile test
tensile specimens. specimen having load P and deformed
length L > L0.
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Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials

Fig. 2.6 Stress-strain diagrams of two typical ductile materials.

Photo 2.4 Ductile material tested


specimens: (a) with cross-section
necking, (b) ruptured.

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Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials

Fig 2.7 Stress-strain diagram for a typical brittle material.

Photo 2.5 Ruptured brittle materials specimen.

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Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity

• Below the yield stress


  E
E  Youngs Modulus or
Modulus of Elasticity

• Strength is affected by alloying,


heat treating, and manufacturing
process but stiffness (Modulus of
Elasticity) is not.
Fig 2.11 Stress-strain diagrams for iron and
different grades of steel.

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Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

• If the strain disappears when the


stress is removed, the material is
said to behave elastically.

• The largest stress for which this


occurs is called the elastic limit.

• When the strain does not return


to zero after the stress is
removed, plastic deformation
Fig. 2.13 Stress-strain response of ductile
of the material has taken place.
material load beyond yield and unloaded.

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Fatigue

• Fatigue properties are shown on


-N diagrams.

• A member may fail due to fatigue


at stress levels significantly below
the ultimate strength if subjected
to many loading cycles.

• When the stress is reduced below


the endurance limit, fatigue
failures do not occur for any
Fig. 2.16 Typical -n curves.
number of cycles.

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Deformations Under Axial Loading

• From Hooke’s Law:


 P
  E  
E AE
• From the definition of strain:


L
• Equating and solving for the deformation,
PL
 
AE
• With variations in loading, cross-section or
material properties,
PL
Fig. 2.17 Undeformed and   i i
deformed axially-loaded rod. i Ai Ei

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Concept Application 2.1

SOLUTION:
• Divide the rod into components at
the load application points.

E  29  106 psi • Apply a free-body analysis on each


component to determine the
internal force

• Evaluate the total of the component


Determine the deformation of deflections.
the steel rod shown under the
given loads.

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Concept Application 2.1


SOLUTION: • Apply free-body analysis to each
• Divide the rod into three component to determine internal forces,
components: P1  60  103 lb

P2  15  103 lb

P3  30  103 lb

• Evaluate total deflection,

Pi Li 1  P1L1 P2 L2 P3 L3 
      
A
i i iE E  1A A 2 A 3 


1     
 60 103 12  15  103 12 30 103 16 
 

6 
29 10  0. 9 0 .9 0.3 

L1  L2  12 in. L3  16 in.  75.9 10 3 in.

A1  A2  0.9 in 2 A3  0.3 in 2   75.9 103 in.

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Sample Problem 2.1

SOLUTION:
• Apply a free-body analysis to the bar
BDE to find the forces exerted by
links AB and DC.
• Evaluate the deformation of links AB
The rigid bar BDE is supported by two and DC or the displacements of B
links AB and CD. and D.

Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70 • Work out the geometry to find the


GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500 deflection at E given the deflections
mm2. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 at B and D.
GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600
mm2).
For the 30-kN force shown, determine the
deflection (a) of B, (b) of D, and (c) of E.

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Sample Problem 2.1


SOLUTION: Displacement of B:
PL
Free body: Bar BDE B 
AE
 60 103 N 0.3 m 

500 10-6 m2 70 109 Pa 
 514 10  6 m
 B  0.514 mm 
M  0B
Displacement of D:
0  30 kN) (0.6 m   FCD (0.2 m)
PL
FCD  90 kN FCD  90 kN tension D 
AE
M  0D
90 103 N 0.4 m 
0  30 kN  0.4 m   FAB  0.2 m 
600 10-6 m2 200 109 Pa 
FAB  60 kN FAB  60 kN compressio n
 300 10  6 m

 D  0.300 mm 

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Sample Problem 2.1


Displacement of D:

BB BH

DD HD
0.514 mm 200 mm  x

0.300 mm x
x  73.7 mm

EE  HE

DD HD
E

400  73.7 mm
0.300 mm 73.7 mm
 E  1.928 mm

 E  1.928 mm 

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Static Indeterminate Problems


• Structures for which internal forces and reactions
cannot be determined from statics alone are said
to be statically indeterminate.

• A structure will be statically indeterminate


whenever it is held by more supports than are
required to maintain its equilibrium.

• Redundant reactions are replaced with


unknown loads which along with the other
loads must produce compatible deformations.

• Deformations due to actual loads and redundant


reactions are determined separately and then
added.
  L R  0
Fig. 2.23

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Concept Application 2.4


Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at
both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:
• Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release
the bar from that support, and solve for the
displacement at B due to the applied loads.

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the


redundant reaction at RB.

• Require that the displacements due to the loads


and due to the redundant reaction be
compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

• Solve for the reaction at RA due to applied loads


and the reaction found at RB.
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Concept Application 2.4


SOLUTION:
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,
P1  0 P2  P3  600 103 N P4  900 103 N

A1  A2  400 10  6 m 2 A3  A4  250 10  6 m 2


L1  L2  L3  L4  0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 109
L   
i Ai Ei E

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant


constraint,
P1  P2   RB

A1  400 10  6 m 2 A2  250 10  6 m 2


L1  L2  0.300 m

δR  
Pi Li


1.95 103 RB 
A
i i iE E
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Concept Application 2.4


• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
  L R  0

 

1.125 109 1.95 103 RB
0

E E
RB  577 103 N  577 kN

• Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B


 Fy  0  RA  300 kN  600 kN  577 kN
RA  323 kN

RA  323 kN
RB  577 kN

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Problems Involving Temperature Change


• A temperature change results in a change in length or
thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the
Fig. 2.26 (partial)
thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by
the supports.
• Treat the additional support as redundant and apply
the principle of superposition.
PL
 T   T L P 
AE
  coefficien t of thermal expansion

• The thermal deformation and the deformation from


the redundant support must be compatible.
  T   P  0  T L 
PL
0
AE
P   AE T 
Fig. 2.27 Superposition method to find force at point B of restrained
P
rod AB undergoing thermal expansion. (a) Initial rod length; (b)    E T 
thermally expanded rod length; (c) force P pushes point B back to A
zero deformation.
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Poisson’s Ratio

• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:



x  x  y z  0
E

• The elongation in the x-direction is


accompanied by a contraction in the other
directions. Assuming that the material is
homogeneous and isotropic (no directional
Fig. 2.29 A bar in uniaxial tension and a
representative stress element. dependence),
 y  z  0
• Poisson’s ratio is defined as
lateral strain  
n   y  z
axial strain x x

Fig. 2.30 Materials undergo transverse


contraction when elongated under axial load.

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Multiaxial Loading: Generalized Hooke’s Law


• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading,
the normal strain components resulting from the
stress components may be determined from the
principle of superposition. This requires:
1) Each effect is linearly related to the load that
produces it.
2) The deformation resulting form any given
load is small and does not affect the conditions
of application of the other loads.
• With these restrictions:
 x n y n z
x    
E E E
n x  y n z
y    
E E E
n x n y 
Fig. 2.33 Deformation of unit cube under
z     z
multiaxial loading: (a) unloaded; (b) deformed. E E E

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Dilatation: Bulk Modulus


• Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is
e  n  1  1   x   y   z   1
 x y z
1  2n
  x   y   z 
E
 dilatation (change in volume per unit volume)

• For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure,


31  2n  p
e p
E k
E
k  bulk modulus or modulus of compressio n
31  2n 

• Subjected to uniform pressure, dilatation must be


negative, therefore
Fig. 2.33 Deformation of unit 0  n  12
cube under multiaxial loading:
(a) unloaded; (b) deformed.

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Shearing Strain

• A cubic element subjected to only shearing stress will


deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding
shearing strain is quantified in terms of the change in
angle between the sides,
 xy  f  xy 

• A plot of shearing stress vs. shearing strain is similar


Fig. 2.36 Unit cubic element
subjected to shearing stress. to the previous plots of normal stress vs. normal
strain except that the strength values are
approximately half. For values of shearing strain
that do not exceed the proportional limit,
 xy  G  xy  yz  G  yz  zx  G  zx

where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus.


Fig. 2.37 Deformation of unit cubic
element due to shearing stress.

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Concept Application 2.10


SOLUTION:
• Determine the average angular
deformation or shearing strain of
the block.
• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress
Fig. 2.41(a) Rectangular block loaded in shear.
and strain to find the corresponding
shearing stress.
A rectangular block of material with • Use the definition of shearing stress to
modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is find the force P.
bonded to two rigid horizontal plates.
The lower plate is fixed, while the
upper plate is subjected to a horizontal
force P. Knowing that the upper plate
moves through 0.04 in. under the action
of the force, determine (a) the average
shearing strain in the material, and (b)
the force P exerted on the plate.
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Concept Application 2.10


• Determine the average angular deformation
or shearing strain of the block.
0.04 in.
 xy  tan  xy   xy  0.020 rad
2 in.

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and


strain to find the corresponding shearing
Fig. 2.41(b) Deformed block showing stress.
the shear strain.
 
 xy  G xy  90 103 psi 0.020 rad   1800 psi

• Use the definition of shearing stress to find


the force P.
P   xy A  1800 psi 8 in. 2.5 in.   36 103 lb

P  36.0 kips

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Relation Between E, n, and G


• An axially loaded slender bar will
elongate in the x direction and contract in
both of the transverse y and z directions.
• An initially cubic element oriented as in
Figure 2.42(a) will deform into a
rectangular parallelepiped. The axial load
produces a normal strain.
• If the cubic element is oriented as in
Figure 2.42(b), it will deform into a
rhombus. Axial load also results in a
shearing strain.
• Components of normal and shearing strain
are related,
Fig. 2.42 Representations of strain in an axially
E
 1  n 
loaded bar: (a) cubicstrain element faces or E
G
aligned with coordinate axes; (b) cubicstrain 2G 21  n 
element faces rotated 45º about z-axis.

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Composite Materials
• Fiber-reinforced composite materials are fabricated
by embedding fibers of a strong, still material into a
weaker, softer material called a matrix.

• Normal stresses and strains are related by Hooke’s


Law but with directionally dependent moduli of
elasticity,
x y 
Ex  Ey  Ez  z
x y z

• Transverse contractions are related by directionally


dependent values of Poisson’s ratio, e.g.,
y 
n xy  n xz   z
x x

Fig. 2.44 Orthotropic Fiber- • The three components of strain x, y, and z for
reinforced composite material
under uniaxial tensile load.
orthotropic materials can be expressed in terms of
normal stress only and do not depend upon any
shearing stresses.
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Sample Problem 2.5

A circle of diameter d = 9 in. is scribed on an


unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4
in. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later
cause normal stresses x = 12 ksi and z = 20
ksi.
For E = 10x106 psi and n = 1/3, determine the
change in:
a) the length of diameter AB,
b) the length of diameter CD,
c) the thickness of the plate, and
d) the volume of the plate.

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Sample Problem 2.5


SOLUTION: • Evaluate the deformation components.
• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to B A  
  x d   0.533 10 3 in./in. 9 in. 
find the three components of normal
B A  4.8 10 3 in.
strain.

x  
 x n y n z
 
C D  
  z d   1.600 10 3 in./in. 9 in. 
E E E
C D  14.4 10 3 in.
1  1 
      
 
12 ksi 0 20 ksi
10  106 psi  3 
 t   y t   1.067 10 3 in./in. 0.75 in. 
 0.533  10 3 in./in.  t  0.800 10 3 in.
n x  y n z
y    
E E E
3
• Find the change in volume
 1.067  10 in./in.
e   x   y   z  1.067 10 3 in 3/in 3
n x n y 
z     z V  eV  1.067 10 3 15 15  0.75 in 3
E E E
 1.600  10 3 in./in. V  0.187 in 3

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Saint-Venant’s Principle
• Loads transmitted through rigid
plates result in uniform distribution
of stress and strain.

• Concentrated loads result in large


stresses in the vicinity of the load
application point.
Fig. 2.47 Axial load Fig. 2.48 Concentrated
applied by rigid plates to axial load applied to
rubber model. rubber model. • Stress and strain distributions
become uniform at a relatively short
distance from the load application
points.

• Saint-Venant’s Principle:
Stress distribution may be assumed
independent of the mode of load
Fig. 2.49 Stress distributions in a
application except in the immediate
plate under concentrated axial loads. vicinity of load application points.
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Stress Concentration: Hole

Fig. 2.50 Stress distribution near Fig. 2.52(a) Stress concentration


circular hole in flat bar under axial factors for flat bars under axial loading.
loading.

Stress concentration factor Discontinuities of cross section may result in


 max high localized or concentrated stresses.
K
 ave
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Stress Concentration: Fillet

Fig. 2.52(b) Stress concentration


factors for flat bars under axial loading.

Fig. 2.51 Stress distribution near


fillets in flat bar under axial loading.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept Application 2.12

SOLUTION:
• Determine the geometric ratios and
find the stress concentration factor
from Figure 2.52.
Determine the largest axial load P
that can be safely supported by a • Find the allowable average normal
flat steel bar consisting of two stress using the material allowable
portions, both 10 mm thick, and normal stress and the stress
respectively 40 and 60 mm wide, concentration factor.
connected by fillets of radius r = 8 • Apply the definition of normal stress to
mm. Assume an allowable normal find the allowable load.
stress of 165 MPa.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept Application 2.12


• Determine the geometric ratios and
find the stress concentration factor
from Figure 2.52.
D 60 mm r 8 mm
  1.50   0.20
d 40 mm d 40 mm
K  1.82
• Find the allowable average normal
stress using the material allowable
normal stress and the stress
concentration factor.
 max 165 MPa
 ave    90.7 MPa
K 1.82

Fig. 2.52(b) Stress concentration


• Apply the definition of normal stress
factors for flat bars under axial loading. to find the allowable load.
P  A ave  40 mm10 mm90.7 MPa 

 36.3 103 N
P  36.3 kN

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Elastoplastic Materials
• Previous analyses based on assumption of
linear stress-strain relationship, i.e.,
stresses below the yield stress
• Assumption is good for brittle material
which rupture without yielding
• If the yield stress of ductile materials is
exceeded, then plastic deformations occur
• Analysis of plastic deformations is
simplified by assuming an idealized
Fig. 2.53 Stress-strain diagram for an elastoplastic material
idealized elastoplastic material.

• Deformations of an elastoplastic material


are divided into elastic and plastic ranges
• Permanent deformations result from
loading beyond the yield stress

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Plastic Deformations

 max A • Elastic deformation while maximum


P   ave A  stress is less than yield stress
K

• Maximum stress is equal to the yield


 A stress at the maximum elastic
PY  Y
K loading

• At loadings above the maximum


elastic load, a region of plastic
deformations develop near the hole

PU   Y A • As the loading increases, the plastic


region expands until the section is at
 K PY
a uniform stress equal to the yield
stress
Fig. 2.56 Distribution of stresses in
elastic-perfectly plastic material under
increasing load.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Residual Stresses

• When a single structural element is loaded uniformly


beyond its yield stress and then unloaded, it is permanently
deformed but all stresses disappear. It should not be
assumed that this will always be the case.
• Residual stresses will remain in a structure after
loading and unloading if
- only part of the structure undergoes plastic
deformation
- different parts of the structure undergo different
plastic deformations

• Residual stresses also result from the uneven heating or


cooling of structures or structural elements

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16

A cylindrical rod is placed inside a tube


of the same length. The ends of the rod
and tube are attached to a rigid support
on one side and a rigid plate on the
other. The load on the rod-tube
assembly is increased from zero to 5.7
kips and decreased back to zero. Fig. 2.54(a) Concentric rod-tube
assembly axially loaded by rigid plate.
a) draw a load-deflection diagram
for the rod-tube assembly Ar  0.075 in.2 At  0.100 in.2

b) determine the maximum Er  30  106 psi Et  15  106 psi


elongation σ r Y  36 ksi σt Y  45 ksi

c) determine the permanent set


d) calculate the residual stresses in
the rod and tube.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16


a) Draw a load-deflection diagram for the rod-tube
assembly

Pr Y   r Y Ar  36 ksi 0.075 in 2   2.7 kips


 r Y 36  103 psi
δr Y   r Y L  L 30 in.
Er 30  10 psi
6

 36  10-3 in.

Pt Y   t Y At  45 ksi 0.100 in 2   4.5 kips


 t Y 45  103 psi
δt Y   t Y L  L  30 in.
Et 15  10 psi
6

 90  10-3 in.
Fig. 2.55 (a) Rod load-deflection response
with elastic unloading (red dashed line). (b)
Tube load-deflection response. Given loading P  Pr  Pt
does not yield tube so unloading is along the
original elastic loading line. (c) Combined    r  t
rod-tube assembly load deflection response
with elastic unloading (red dashed line).
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

b,c) determine the maximum elongation and permanent set


Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
• At a load of P = 5.7 kips, the rod has reached the plastic
range while the tube is still in the elastic range
Pr  Pr Y  2.7 kips
Pt  P  Pr  5.7  2.7  kips  3.0 kips
Pt 3.0 kips
t   2
 30 ksi
At 0.1in
t 30  103 psi
 t  t L  L 30 in.  max   t  60 10 3 in.
Et 15  106 psi

• The rod-tube assembly unloads along a line parallel to 0Yr


4.5 kips
m -3
 125 kips in.  slope
36 10 in.
Pmax 5.7 kips
Fig. 2.55 (a) Rod load-deflection response
with elastic unloading (red dashed line). (b)
     45.6 10 3 in.
Tube load-deflection response. Given loading
m 125 kips in.
does not yield tube so unloading is along the
original elastic loading line. (c) Combined  p   max     60  45.6 10 3 in.
rod-tube assembly load deflection response  p  14.4 10 3 in.
with elastic unloading (red dashed line).
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept Applications 2.14, 2.15, 2.16


• Calculate the residual stresses in the rod and tube.

Calculate the reverse stresses in the rod and tube caused


by unloading and add them to the maximum stresses.

 45.6  103 in.


    1.52  103 in. in.
L 30 in.

 r   Er   1.52  103 30  106 psi   45.6 ksi


 t   Et   1.52  103 15  106 psi   22.8 ksi

 residual,r   r   r  36  45.6  ksi  9.6 ksi


Fig. 2.55 (a) Rod load-deflection response  residual,t   t   t  30  22.8 ksi  7.2 ksi
with elastic unloading (red dashed line). (b)
Tube load-deflection response. Given loading
does not yield tube so unloading is along the
original elastic loading line. (c) Combined
rod-tube assembly load deflection response
with elastic unloading (red dashed line).
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