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PRESENTED BY: KOMAL KHEMANI

www.company.com

Measures of Variability

Variability refers to the extent to which the values in a distribution differ from their mean. If a distribution is lacking in variability, we may say that it is homogeneous. Four measures of variability are: the range, mean or average deviation, variance and standard deviation.

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Pearson also coined the usage of the lowercase Greek letter sigma squared to signify the variance.company. and Jordan between 1872 and 1876 in terms of differences between values of a variable.History Within astronomy.com . Karl Pearson introduced this concept into statistics in a series of articles published in Philosophical Transactions and Biometrika between 1896 and 1906. Helmert. the coefficient of variance was formulated by von Andrae. www.

company.VARIANCE It describes how far values lie from the mean. and N is the www.com . number of observations is the mean. The formula for the variance is: Where 2 is the variance.

0. The mean score is 7. The column "Squared Deviation" is simply the previous column squares.com . www.company. Therefore. the column "Deviation from Mean" contains the score minus 7.Example The data from Quiz 1 are shown in Table 1.

company.com .Table 1. www. Calculation of Variance for Quiz 1 scores.

com . Therefore.company. the variance is 1.5. The mean of the squared deviations is 1.5. Analogous calculations with Quiz 2 show that it's variance is 6. www.7.

Population Variance If the variance in a sample is used to estimate the variance in a population.company. then the previous formula underestimates the variance and the following formula should be used: where s2 is the estimate of the variance and M is the sample mean. Note that M is the mean of a sample taken from a population with a mean of . www.com .

and 5 were sampled from a larger population.com .Example Assume the scores 1. s2 = [(1-3)2 + (2-3)2 + (4-3)2 + (5-3)2]/(4-1) = (4 + 1 + 1 + 4)/3 = 10/3 = 3.company. To estimate the variance in the population you would compute s2 as follows: M = (1 + 2 + 4 + 5)/4 = 12/4 = 3. 4. 2.333 www.

com .company.There are alternate formulas that can be easier to use if you are doing your calculations with a hand calculator: and www.

www.36)/3 = 3.5 and s2 = (46 . X2 = 12 + 22 + 42 + 52 = 46 ( X)2 = (1 + 2 + 4 + 5)2/N = 144/4 = 36 2 = (46 .com .For this example.333 as with the other formula.36)/4 = 2.company.

500. www.com .000 is a lot bigger than 502=2.Why square ? Squaring each difference makes them all positive numbers (to avoid negatives reducing the Variance) And it also makes the bigger differences stand out.company. For example 1002=10.

com .Standard Deviation The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance. www.company.

company. there is no variability)..e.com . ± Equal zero when all scores are identical (i. they are sensitive to all scores.Properties of the Variance & Standard Deviation ± Are always positive (or zero). www. ± Like the mean.

Formula for calculating covariance: 1 S xy ! § .COVARIANCE Covariance is a measure of how much two variables change together.

X i X y .

Yi Yy N 1 i !1 www.com N .company.

EXAMPLE www.com .company.

company.com .Smoking and Lung Capacity MEAN= 10 MEAN= 36 www.

company.Scatter Plot 50 40 30 Lung Capacity 20 -10 0 10 20 30 Smoking www.com .

www. The two variables covary in opposite directions. lung capacity tends to go down.com .company. We can see easily from the graph that as smoking goes up.

com .company.Calculating Covariance www.

com .company.So we obtain S xy 1 ! ( 215) ! 53.75 4 www.

com .THANK YOU www.company.

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