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FWD 312

Lecture 6 -Animal -habitat

 Every single species of plans and animals has evolved to its
present from after successful competition.
 Survival of the fittest

1. Adapted for nutrient-poor

soils, wet climates, bright
2. Like all green plants,
photosynthesize (I.e.
they’re producers).
3. Utilize excess sugars
from photosynthesis as
4. Attract and absorb
macronutrients P-K-N
(e.g. fertilizer) from prey
Niche – functional status of an organism
in an ecosystem - “ profession”- Joseph


Weigh 205 - 227 kg

5-6 Kg
• Gause’s hypothesis or Hardin’s competitive exclusion principle
“two species competing for the same resources cannot coexist
indefinitely. One of them has to either adapt or become
1. An inverse relationship exists
between body size and diet quality
2. dik-dik - selecting sparsely
distributed, highly nutritious
3. Thompson's gazelles & hartebeest
are successively less selective
grazers, but still select fresh growth
4. Buffalo - with high food needs have
to feed generally upon abundant, but
low-quality, high fibre, structural
tissues (mostly grass stems and
Partitioning is impacted by numerous factors
 from raw intake needs
 the inverse relationship of food quality and abundance
 food choice, foraging behaviour and strategy, snout width etc.
The Jarman-Bell principle,- based on this observation of
declining diet quality with body size
Economical Prey
Is Niche determined only by food?


Hutchinson : total set of conditions under which an individual

or population lives and replaces it self
Fundamental niche: occupied by species in absence of competition
Realized niche: occupied by species in the presence of competition

Niches may partially overlap but never fully-

extensive overlapping- abundant resources
Resource Partitioning

Temporal Spatial
Weigh 135- 230 kg Weigh 110 - 190 kg
Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous eco-
Animal species WEG SEG MDF DDF TF Grassland
Asiatic lion
Wild Dog
Spotted Deer
4 horn Antelope
Barking deer
Wild Pig
Gr. Indian Bustard

Generalists: BROAD NICHE

Specialist: NARROW NICHE
Management relevance : one ecosystem cannot contain all species
Resource partitioning in birds
Resource Partitioning in Three Sympatric Species of Storks in Keoladeo
National Park, India- Farah Ishtiaq, Sálim Javed, Malcolm C. Coulter
and Asad R. Rahmani- Waterbirds 33(1):41-49. 2010

 Black-necked Stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus) Painted Stork (Mycteria

leucocephala) and Asian Openbill (Anastomus oscitans) )

 The Black-necked Stork, a solitary generalist forager, uses tactile and visual
methods with a high proportion offish in the diet.

 The Painted Stork and Asian Openbill forage in groups of two to 100.

 Both Painted and Asian Openbill Storks are specialists and tactile foragers with
the former preferring fish and the latter snails (Pila spp.).
Niche width (NICHE BREADTH
• Niche width – sum total of different resources which
an organism exploits. Variables like food or habitat
spaces are usually measured to compute niche width
• Niche compression- competition (INTERSPECIFIC)
resulting in contraction of habitat
• Niche expansion or ecological release – decreased
interspecific competition
• Niche shift- change in behavioural and feeding
patterns by two or more competing population
• Pinch period: Limiting factors are more active
• Qualifiers:- any event or activity which affects the quality of a
habitat by modify it are qualifiers- phenolgical, biotic, climatic
 The inter-specific relationships are interaction between
different species whereas the interaction between the same
species is called as intra-specific.

They are broadly classified into may be broadly classified as



 Relationship for procuring the various welfare factors like food and shelter
or it can be for securing mobility for the sessile symbiont (partners)
 Symbiosis are of various catergoires: mutualism (a close and often
permanent and obligatory contact) or Protocooperation &commensalism
 Mutualism: both partners benefited are again categorized into two types
(a) continuous contact mutualism (b) Mutualism without continuous
contact (protocooperation)

Continuous contact mutualism:

lichen- matrix formed of fungus with Mutualism without continuous contact:
algal cell embedded crocodile bird removes leeches from
 The association of two or more populations which live together, but do not
enter into any kind of physiological exchange, and in which only one of the
populations called commensal is benefited while the other, host is not effected.
(1) Commensalism with continuous contact (2) Commensalism without
continuous contact

Commensalism with continuous contact Commensalism without continuous contact

Antagonism: In antagonism, one species is benefited at the cost of

the other i.e. one species is generally harmed.




 Amensalism/ Antibiosis: The relationship between the two populations, in
which one population inhibits the other while remaining unaffected itself, is
called as amensalism.

E.g blue green alga produces a toxic substance called hydroxylamine

which is lethal to cattle and fish

Parasitism: An association between two animals which live together, in

which one derives its nourishment at the expense of the other is called as
parasitism. several categories exists (1) partial parasites (2) permanent
parasites; this is again categorised into ecto parasite and endo parasite

 Partial parasites: spends only part of life cycle on the host animal

 Permanent ecto parasite: flea on coat of mammals

 Permanent endo parasite: liver fluke

Predation: Predation represents a direct and often complex
interaction of two or more species, of the eaters and the being

Competition: When two species in the same community

require the same resources as food, shelter, light etc., which are
in short supply in relation to the number seeking it, or interact
in such a way that it affects their growth and survival, they are
said to be in competition with each other.

 Neutralism: In neutralism none of the two populations which

are in interaction with each other is affected.