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Use of logic

Artificial agents

Can combine GK with current percepts

Build up KB incrementally

Logic primary vehicle

K always definite ( T/F)

Problem for a robot

door is locked.

If door is locked it implies that the red light is turned ON or it is

morning shift or the supervisor is absent

If load is small in size or load is light then the conveyor belt

moves

If the conveyor belt is moving then it means the load has a

small size or load is light

The Red light is off, the Conveyor belt is not moving and the

Door is locked.

The robot wants to know if the load is heavy (not light).

Robot needs a Knowledge Base

and reasoning ability

Knowledge base

Set of sentences

INFERENCE

– Deriving new info from old

Language to enable building KB

Interpretations

sentence w.r.t. each possible world

Similarity with CSP

reasoning

Constraint languages: LOGICS

Wff and logical reasoning

Entailment:

– Sentence follows logically from another sentence

KB |= s

iff in every model in which KB is true, s is

also true

Inference algorithm

Check if s is true in every model

(interpretation) for which KB is also true

Backtracking search – recursively assign

values to variables

Exponential complexity

definitions

Validity

Tautology

Deduction theorem

Satisfiability

inconsistancy

Reasoning patterns in

Propositional logic

Inference rules

Modus Ponens

And Elimination

Standard logical equivalances

– De Morgan

– Contra positive

– Distributive laws

– Associative laws

Deduction

and what it currently perceives

(more knowledge added to the KB),

the robot wants to deduce that

the load is not light

Knowledge that robot has

absent then door is locked.

If door is locked it implies that the red light is turned

ON or it is morning shift or the supervisor is absent

If load is small in size or load is light then the

conveyor belt moves

If the conveyor belt is moving then it means the load

has a small size or load is light

Observations by the robot

Conveyor belt is not moving

Door is locked

What the robot wants to establish?

( or in other words it is heavy)

Knowledge + Observation (K.B.)

door is locked.

If door is locked it implies that the red light is turned ON or it is

morning shift or the supervisor is absent

If load is small in size or load is light then the conveyor belt

moves

If the conveyor belt is moving then it means the load has a

small size or load is light

Red light is off

Conveyor belt is not moving

Door is locked

Propositions

P: red light is ON

M: it is morning shift

N: supervisor absent

D: door is locked.

Q: load is small in size

R: load is light

B: the conveyor belt is moving

Next?

process

Steps to help the robot (inferencing)

Use And-elimination

Use contra-positive relation

Use modus ponens

Use de morgan’s law

PROOF?

Finding proofs is like finding solutions to search

problems.

Successor function generates all possible application

of inference rules

In worst case, search for proof would be as bad as

enumerating all the models

Some irrelevant propositions can be ignored to

speed up search.

Monotonicity

as info is added to KB.

Rules can be applied wherever suitable

Resolution

Can everything be inferred?

Resolution rule forms basis for a family of

complete inference procedures.

Refutation completeness

CONFIRM

or

REFUTE a sentence

Artificial Intelligence

Intelligent?

What is intelligence?

goals in the world

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