You are on page 1of 27

# Knowledge Representation

Use of logic
Artificial agents

##  need Knowledge and reasoning power

 Can combine GK with current percepts
 Build up KB incrementally
 Logic primary vehicle
 K always definite ( T/F)
Problem for a robot

##  If red light is ON or it is morning shift or supervisor absent then

door is locked.
 If door is locked it implies that the red light is turned ON or it is
morning shift or the supervisor is absent
 If load is small in size or load is light then the conveyor belt
moves
 If the conveyor belt is moving then it means the load has a
small size or load is light
 The Red light is off, the Conveyor belt is not moving and the
Door is locked.
 The robot wants to know if the load is heavy (not light).
Robot needs a Knowledge Base
and reasoning ability
Knowledge base

##  Central component of a K based agent

 Set of sentences
 INFERENCE
– Deriving new info from old
 Language to enable building KB
Interpretations

##  Language semantics defines TRUTH of each

sentence w.r.t. each possible world
Similarity with CSP

##  Constraint solving is a form of Logical

reasoning
 Constraint languages: LOGICS
Wff and logical reasoning

 Entailment:
– Sentence follows logically from another sentence
 KB |= s
 iff in every model in which KB is true, s is
also true
Inference algorithm

##  Enumerate the models

 Check if s is true in every model
(interpretation) for which KB is also true
 Backtracking search – recursively assign
values to variables
 Exponential complexity
definitions

 Validity
 Tautology
 Deduction theorem
 Satisfiability
 inconsistancy
Reasoning patterns in
Propositional logic
Inference rules

 Modus Ponens
 And Elimination
 Standard logical equivalances
– De Morgan
– Contra positive
– Distributive laws
– Associative laws
Deduction

##  With the knowledge base that the robot has,

and what it currently perceives
(more knowledge added to the KB),
the robot wants to deduce that
Knowledge that robot has

##  If red light is ON or it is morning shift or supervisor

absent then door is locked.
 If door is locked it implies that the red light is turned
ON or it is morning shift or the supervisor is absent
 If load is small in size or load is light then the
conveyor belt moves
 If the conveyor belt is moving then it means the load
has a small size or load is light
Observations by the robot

##  Red light is off

 Conveyor belt is not moving
 Door is locked
What the robot wants to establish?

##  The load is not light

( or in other words it is heavy)
Knowledge + Observation (K.B.)

##  If red light is ON or it is morning shift or supervisor absent then

door is locked.
 If door is locked it implies that the red light is turned ON or it is
morning shift or the supervisor is absent
 If load is small in size or load is light then the conveyor belt
moves
 If the conveyor belt is moving then it means the load has a
small size or load is light
 Red light is off
 Conveyor belt is not moving
 Door is locked
Propositions

 P: red light is ON
 M: it is morning shift
 N: supervisor absent
 D: door is locked.
 Q: load is small in size
 B: the conveyor belt is moving
Next?

##  Now generate wffs and start the inference

process
Steps to help the robot (inferencing)

##  Consider a relevant rule for conveyor belt

 Use And-elimination
 Use contra-positive relation
 Use modus ponens
 Use de morgan’s law
PROOF?

##  PROOF: Sequence of application of Inference rules.

 Finding proofs is like finding solutions to search
problems.
 Successor function generates all possible application
of inference rules
 In worst case, search for proof would be as bad as
enumerating all the models
 Some irrelevant propositions can be ignored to
speed up search.
Monotonicity

##  Set of entailed sentences can only increase

as info is added to KB.
 Rules can be applied wherever suitable
Resolution

 Can everything be inferred?
 Resolution rule forms basis for a family of
complete inference procedures.
Refutation completeness

##  Resolution can be used to either

CONFIRM
or
REFUTE a sentence
Artificial Intelligence
Intelligent?
What is intelligence?

##  computational part of the ability to achieve

goals in the world