Emergency are divided into two parts: Universal Type ‡ Power Failure ‡ Steam Failure ‡ Cooling Water Failure ‡ Instrument Air Failure ‡ Feed Failure ‡ Furnace Coil Failure ‡ DCS Failure ‡ Unit fire Unit Specific ‡ Tempered water failure ‡ DM Water/ BFW failure ‡ Failure of OWS/CRWS system ‡ Failure of CBD system ‡ Critical Exchangers tube leaks ‡ Failure of Pressurized FO pump to seals ‡ Desalter emergencies ‡ APH failure Here we will be discussing about Universal type. .

‡ Close 12-PV-1218 on non-condensable return line to inlet of first stage ejectors. vessels by manually closing the respective control valves. ‡ Ensure all MOV at pump suction and discharge are closed. ‡ Ensure safety shut down switches are in run position. ‡ Shut off ejectors steam and close hot well vent valve and hot well gases to 11-FF00-101. and Vacuum column. . Atm. ‡ Close Furnaces fuel gas and oil control valves manually. ‡ Hold pressure in the crude column and stabilizer by manually operating 11-PIC1506 and 11-PIC-1101 respectively.Action from the panel: ‡ Close stripping stream to all stripper. ‡ Hold levels in columns.

. ‡ Close main block valve on water injection line.Action from the field: ‡ Ensure furnace snap shut valves on gas and oil lines are shut.102 have opened wide and block valves of individual coils are open. Close block valves on oil and gas.102. ‡ Block off desalter water drains and block valves at water injection points. ‡ Ensure coil steam snap shut control valves on FF-00-101. ‡ Shut stripping steam to stripper and Column. ‡ Purge individual oil lines by opening purging steam to the oil guns and furnace by snuffing steam. ‡ Close individual adco valves of oil and gas burners of FF-00-101.

flush the system with flushing oil . ‡ As soon as power is available. Open purging steam to individual oil burners.‡ Close pump discharge valves. ‡ Establish fuel oil circulation in the heater circuit. ‡ Open emergency steam to all the eight passes of the vacuum heater 12-FF-00-101.5 kg/cm2g. ‡ Open fuel gas to inlet of first stage ejectors to bring up the system pressure to 0. ‡ Reduce feed to stabilizer and the hot oil to stabiliser reboiler.

RCO can be flushed out through VR circuit. Section cut off steam to ejectors and close UV-1402 on vent gas KOD routing gases to Atmospheric heater and vent line valve UV-1401. .  If cooling water supply is not restored soon and flushing oil from offsite is available at sufficient pressure. Cooling water failure will result in a high pressure of column and temperatures and sometimes even the relief valve will pop. Crude column refluxing should continue at a flow rate to cool down the column. steam purging can be done to displace the heater stuff.Other pumps can be run to empty out and cool the system as far as possible. Alternatively.  All fire to the heater including pilot will be cut off. If it for short duration or partial reduce throughput. Still the pressure is not control the unit is shutdown as per procedure.  In Vac.  Stop stripping steam to crude column and strippers. Burner guns will be steam purged.

Vacuum Section: ‡ Ensure safety shut down valve UV-1151 & UV-1152 cuts off fuel gas supply and UV-1153 cut off fuel oil supply to heater. Isolate individual oil burners. ‡ . Common: ‡ Burner guns will be steam purged. All bypass valves are globe type to facilitate control of flow rate. ‡ The flow through shut-down valves and control valves open on air failure will be manually restricted to maintain normal level. Section: ‡ Ensure that safety shut down control valve UV-1451 & UV-1452 cuts off fuel gas supply and UV-1453 cut off fuel oil supply to the heater. Reduce the through put slowly to minimum and if instrument air failure is for longer duration start the normal shutdown of the unit.Atm. pressure and temperature in columns and vessels. FD/ID fans will be allowed to run as long as possible. In the event of failure of a control valve it can either be bypassed or operated with the aid of a hand wheel provided.

Shut off all burners and flush out all oil burners. Vacuum unit will be on short circulation through its furnace.Keep fuel oil circulation on. Section: ‡ Steam for atomising and stripping will no be available. FD/ID fans may be kept running. Stop all other pumps. Hold levels and pressures by taking all controls on manual.Atm. Resort to circulation in the bottom section using VR Circuit and crude tank. Start close circulation by diverting 11-PA-CF-110 A/B discharge to 12-FF-00-101 inlet through VR circuit and crude tank. Reduce throughtput slowly and Cut off fire to the heater. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

Keep the coil flow at minimum level. Cut in flushing oil to the bottom of vacuum column. UV-1402 on vent gas KOD gases line to crude heater fire box and vent line valve UV-1401.5 kg/cm2g. Start close circulation by diverting 11-PACF-110 A/B discharge to 12-FF-00-101 inlet through VR circuit and crude tank.Shut off all burners and flush out all oil burners. Back in fuel gas and maintain pressure at about 0. ejector and stripping will no be available. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . Close non-condensable return to inlet of first stage ejectors through PIC-1218. Close ejector steam valves. FD/ID fans may be kept running. Reduce throughtput slowly and Cut off fire to the heater.Vacuum Section: ‡ Steam for atomising. Start emptying out heavy stocks to slop by diverting a part of 12-PA-CF-105 A/B discharge through VR circuit. Pump out products to slop. Start circulation from 12-PA-CF-105 A/B to 12-FF-00-101 inlet.

If it is only for a short period shutdown need not be taken. As an additional precautionary measure release emergency trip switch from CCR and also put all trip switched in µRUN¶ position. So plant automatically takes emergency shutdown. . Put off all motors except air fin fans and reflux pumps. Watch pressure and level locally and take corrective action. All the control valves will keep the same status. Telephone also can be used for communication. Put off them after watching the column pressure locally. Otherwise emergency shutdown of the plant is to be taken. If operator station alone fails back up panel will be live. PLC also fails. There will be no indication of pressure temperature level and flow in the panel as well as in the back up panel. In this case PLC and communication system will not fail.UPS FAILURE Causes: 1) DCS failure . Isolate all yield b/vs. Action to be taken in the filed: Isolated all heaters.(operator station becomes blank) 2) PLC failure 3) Communication system failure Failure of DCS will cause various control valves to go to fail safe position.

Ensure that Furnaces fire is cut off. Shut all the stripping steam b/vs in field. . Take emergency shutdown as per procedure. Release emergency push button-on the console. Watch column pressure in filed and control.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Inform the situation to the field operators and concerned people. reflux and circulating reflux after the level is minimum. Stop all the pumps.

‡ If feed supply cannot be resorted immediately the unit will be brought to hot circulation by diverting 11-PA-CF-110 A/B/C discharge to furnace inlet through VR line. . ‡ Failure of crude supply to unit may occur due to improper functioning of offsites Crude pump to Unit.Atm. Products will be stopped. If crude pump discharge pressure tends to come down cut down unit throughput to restore normal pressure.low flow switches FALL-1401 B to 1408 B which will cut off fuel oil and fuel gas to heater. ‡ Standby pumps will be pressed into service for any trouble with the running pump. Section: ‡ In Case of low feed activation of low. Temperature will be maintained around 200 oC. Water to coolers will be throttled. Crude booster pump.

Vacuum Section: ‡ Feed Failure will be indicated by FAL-1101 A to 1108 A in 12-FF-00-101. ‡ Bring down the unit as per normal procedure. ‡ Put the unit on circulation by diverting 12-PA-CF-105 A/B discharge to furnace inlet through start up line. If the failure is due to atm. start the spare pump. ‡ Cut firing rate in the furnace in case FALL is not activated already. ‡ FALL-1101 B to 1108 B which will cut off supply of fuel oil and fuel gas to the furnace. column bottom pump. .

RCO circuit will be flushed by taking flushing oil from offsite. Section: ‡ ‡ All fire in the heater will be cut off. Feed to the heater will be stopped and Stuffing steam will be opened in radiation and convection sections. Top refluxing will be continued as long as possible. Stripping steam to crude column and stripper will be stopped. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . Column pressure will be closely watched for any rise of pressure due to additional amount of steam put into the heater coil.Atm.Product/pump around pumps will be stopped when they loose suction. Stop ID/FD fans. Emergency coil steam will be opened in all the passes of the heater.

‡ ‡ . Empty out the tower by pumping from all trays and column bottom till pumps loose suction. Steam out the unit as per normal procedure and hand over to maintenance for installing blinds as per master blind list. section ‡ Cut off ejector steam and close cooling water to ejector condensers and drain water from them.Vacuum Section: In addition to first three point in the atm. ‡ Float the unit on fuel gas and allow gas to escape to furnace by sufficiently increasing steam to heater coils. Vacuum should be broken with steam to avoid air entry through ruptured tube. Drain out remaining oil from the column to CBD. Take flushing oil into the column and dilute its content. pump out the oil from the column.

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