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Brick, Stone
Natural & Artificial sand
Reinforcing steel – mild, tor & high tensile steel
Concrete types– PCC, RCC, Prestressed & precast
Introduction to smart material
Recycling of materials
Basic materials and their uses
 Basic materials used in construction are
cement, sand, bricks, stone and steel
 Cement –As a binding material
 Sand- used in mortar or concrete
 Bricks and stones – for masonry work.
 Steel- for reinforcement concrete and
fabrication of steel doors, windows, fixtures
and fastners

 Cement binder a very fine in size

 Compose of various ratio of chemical
 When water is added to the cement, a hydration reaction occurs,
producing a solid gel that bond the aggregate particle

• +Al2O3+Fe2O3+other minerals

 lime stone + clay
 physical properties of cement
 1- fineness-OPC-Surface area not less than
 2250cm2/gm
 2-setting time-
a) Initial setting time-30min
b) Final setting time-3 to 6 hrs
 3-compressive strength -3days-16N/mm2
 7days-22 N/mm2
 4-soundness-not more than 10 mm

 The composition on the cement helps determine

the rate of curing and the final properties of the
 e.g. 3CaO . Al2O3 and 3CaO . SiO2  Rapid setting but low
 •2CaO . Al
2CaO . Al2O3 Slowly during hydration 2O3higher strengths

•3CaO . SiO2

•3CaO . Al2O3

9 Time

 The concrete is expected 28 days for nearly complete curing

Some additional curing may continue for years
 Types of cement
 Type 1: General purpose
 Type 2: Low rate of heat generation, moderate resistance to
 Type 3: Rapid setting
 Type 4: Very low rate

 of heat generation
 Type 5: Good sulphate

 resistance + =
Cements Reaction

•Hydration reaction

Cement occur

3CaO . Al2O3+6H2O ->

Sand Ca3Al2(OH)12 + heat

2CaO . SiO2+xH2O ->

Ca2SiO4 . xH2O + heat
3CaO . SiO2+ (x+1)H2O

Water -> Ca2SiO4 . xH2O

+Ca(OH)12 + heat

types of cement
 A) Portland cements-
 1-ordinary Portland cement-all types of constn,less resistance
to chemical attack
 2-rapid hardening Portland cement-after 3 days it is same as 7
days strength of OPC
 3- low heat cement –slower rate of reaction
 4-sulphate resisting cement-
 5-portland blast furnace slag cement-used for dams,bridges &
foundation & more resistant to sulphate attack-decoration &
architectural finish,it is costly
 6-white and colored cement
 B) Super Sulphate cement-resistant to sea
 C) Natural cement- not used
 D) High alumina cement-it is not attacked by
carbon dioxide therefore for manufacture of
RCC pipes

 Field testing of Cement

Uses of Cement

1) OPC is used for preparation of cement mortar &

constn of bldgs
2) Manufacturing of tiles
3) Used as a base in paints
4) White & coloured cement uesd in plastering &
decorative finish
5) Sulphate resisting cement is used in constn of
surfaces exposed to sulphate action
6) construction of highway slabs

 properties of brick
 1-size and shape
 2-water absorption
 3-strength-35 kg/cm2
 4-colour
Manufacture of bricks

 Selection of site
 Preparation of clay
 Moulding of bricks
 Drying of bricks
 Burning of bricks
 first class
 second class
 third class
 uses of bricks-
1) In masonry work
2) Flooring material
3) Constn of roads
4) First class bricks used in face work of the bldg
5) Broken bricks used as a aggregate in lime concrete
Stone is always obtained from rocks, which a solid portion
of earth crust.
The rocks quarried from quarries is called as stone.
Quarried stone may be in the from of stone slab, stone
blocks, stone aggregates, stone lintels, stone flags.
Stone has to be properly dressed & shaped before it is
used at the place of work.

 Gravel & Rock

 Aggregate must be clean, strong, and durable
 Angular aggregate particles provide strength due to mechanical
interlocking between particles
 More surface on angular particles may form voids or cracks
 The large size of aggregate is preferred
 Aggregate particles should not be larger than about 20% of the
thickness of the structure or it will cause the holding defect

Classification of rocks
Geological classification:- Igneous rocks,
Sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks.
Physical classification:- Stratified rocks,
unstratified rocks, laminated rocks
Chemical classification:- Siliceous rocks,
argillaceous rocks, calcareous rocks
Classification based on hardness of the stones:-
Very hard rock, hard rock, medium rock and soft
Uses of stones
Broken stones & stone chips are used in foundation,
for floor of buildg. Railway ballast & road metal
Stone blocks are mainly used In walls & for
ornamental facing work.
Quartzite is used for rubble masonry, road metalling
& also used as a aggregates
Lime stone slabs used for flooring, paving,roofing
Granite:-for bridge abutments, piers & kitchen ota
Marble :- for extreme superior work eg. TajMahal


It is a form of silica (siliceous+ argillaceous),
formed due to decomposition of sandstones due
to various weathering actions.
Natural (obtained from pits, river beds, shores)&
artificial sand (by crushing of stones)
Fine sand (sand which pass through IS. 4.75mm
size sieve) & coarse sand( that retain on
IS.4.75mm size sieve)
Increases volume of mortar & makes the mortar
Requisites for Good Sand

1) The gains should be sharp,angular &

2) Sand should be free from clayey materials
3) It should free from salts
4) The grains should be of durable minerlas
Uses of sand
In cement mortar for stone, brick
masonry & plastering work.
Used in PCC, RCC. & in
Prestressed conc.
Coarser sand used for face
plastering for external walls.
It is an alloy of iron & carbon, containing carbon- 0.25
to 1.25%
Steel is highly elastic, ductile, malleable, forgeable &
Generally mild steel: (designated as Fe250, ie. Yield
strength in N/mm2), Tor steel: used in RCC.
structures (Fe415 & Fe500)) & High tensile steel:
(used in prestress conc. costruction.) used in
Steel is of diff. sections like I, T, O, & channel sections
Uses of steel
Structural material in trusses, beams in the form
of various sections.
Non structural components like stairs, grills,
windows & doors.
In fabrication of steel pipes, tubes, tanks, ducts
Mild steel- used as distribution steel in RCC.
Tor steel- used as main steel in RCC.
High tensile steel cables used in prestressed
conc. Girders.

 It is workable mixture which can be easily
transported, placed & compacted to attend
maximum strength.
 Properties of concrete depends upon
properties of ingredients.

 Common construction material

 Strong hard but brittle
 Heavy and can not be recycle
 All ingredients compose of diminishing raw

 Concretes = a particular composite in which both the
particular and the matrix are ceramic material
 Concretes = Portland Cement + Sand +Aggregate
 (A cementation reaction between water and the mineral in cement provide a
strong matrix and good compressive strength)

 Cements
 Sand
 Aggregate

Properties of Concrete

 The water cement ratio

Properties of Concrete

 The amount of air entrainment

Properties of Concrete

 The amount of air entrainment

 A small amount of air is entrained into concrete during pouring
 1-2.5% (sometimes up to 8%) by volume of the concrete may
be trapped by air
 The entrained air
 - improves workability of concrete
 - minimise problems with shrinkage and freeze thaw
conditions, but
 – cause lower strength

Concrete Construction

Grades of concrete
 M10 1:3:6(culvert, retaining walls, conc.
 M15 1:2:4(for general RCC. work)
 M20 1:1.5:3(water tank & bridge
 M25 1:1:2(heavily loaded RCC. structures)
 M30 and above (heavy structures)
Classification of concrete

 1-Plain cement concrete (PCC)

 2-Reinforced cement concrete (RCC)
 3-Precast concrete
 4-Prestress concrete
 -Pre-tensioning
 -Post-tensioning
1-Plain cement concrete (PCC)

 It is a mixture of cement, fine+coarse

aggregates & water
 The proportion of these ingredients depends
upon grade of mix required & for requirenent
of particular job
 The PCC is strong in compression & weak in
tension. It has good weathering resistance
 It has good resistance to abrasion.
Uses of PCC.
Used in foundation masonry, Base
for foundation, flooring base

In gravity dam & retaining walls

Reinforced cement concrete (RCC)
Mixture of concrete with steel.
Equally strong in tension & in compression
Due to bonding between steel & concrete, stresses are transferred from one material to another material.
Minimum M20 grade of concrete is required for the construction
Uses of RCC.

Concreting for general work like beam, column,

slabs, footing etc
Construction of multistoried buildings
Construction of road pavements
Construction of water, oil tanks, bridges,concrete
Machine foundations
Marine structure, hydraulic structure
Precast concrete

Concrete which is cast in separate forms before

they are placed in position
It may be casted at building site or some
distance from building site
Then with help of equipments & cranes they are
transported on site.
Simplest form of precast concrete are hollow &
solid concrete blocks for the construction of
external & internal walls.
Reinforced and Pre-post-stressed Concrete
 Concrete for construction material
 Reinforced Concrete
 Pre-stressed Concrete
 Post-stressed Concrete

Uses of precast concrete

For casting various building elements

such as beam, column, slabs, water
tank etc.
For manufacturing of compound
poles, electric poles
Fabrication of RCC. Pipes, bridge
girder, bridge pier & concrete piles
Prestressed Concrete (P.S.C.)

This is a reinforced concrete in which concrete is subjected to

compressive stress before the external load applied to conteract
tensile stress caused in concrete due to external loads
Used for M30 & above grades of concrete.
Prestressing is of two types- 1)Pre-tensioning
2) post-tensioning
Prestressing force is applied with the help of hydraulic jacks.

In this the tendons are prestressed

in place before concrete is poured,

2) Post-tensioning- In this the

tendons are given the required
tension after the concrete has
attained desired strength.
Uses of Prestressed Concrete (P.S.C.)

Girders for bridges

Beams for larger spans
Railway slippers
Electrical poles
Used in constn of nuclear power
stations,steel plants ,piles

1) It permits the use of large spans with

shallow member even when heavy
loads are encounted
2) High quality materials are used
3) The size of structural member are
Precast blocks

The cement concrete

blocks which are cast in
rectangular shape mould,
which is hollow or solid.
Uses of pre-cast blocks

For light weight structure

In partition walls
As size of precast block is more it required less
material & hence economical.
Strong, Durable, & having High strength
Difference between mortar & concrete

 Mortar  Concrete
 Cement+fine  Cement+fine
aggregates+water aggregates+coars
 Mortar used for aggregates+water
masonry work & +water
plastering works, also  Used for RCC. & PSC.
used for grouting works
Introduction to smart material

 Smartmaterials are the materials which have the

capability to respond to change in their condition o
the environment to which they are exposed

 Eg.Photocromatic material that change in colour

with response to light, alloys & polymers change
their shape with response to heat, fluids that
changes its viscosity with respect to electric or
magnetic stimuli.
Different smart materials

Piezoelectric material
Electrostrictive material
Magnetostrictive material
Shape memory alloy
Optical fibres
 Asphalt is bitumen.
 Bitumen is the organic binder, composed of
HC with low melting point thermoplastic
polymers and oils.
 Asphalt mix is composite of aggregate and

Asphalt Mix

 The aggregate use as in the concrete that

should be clean and angular.
 Aggregate should have distribution of grain
sizes to provide a high packing factor and
good mechanical interlock between
aggregate grains.
Operation of Asphalt Mix

Asphalt construction

Electrostrictive material
This material has same properties to
that of piezoelectric material, but only
the change is that mechanical change
is equal to square of electrical field
Piezoelectric material
Magnetostrictive material

When subjected mechanical

field this material under goes
mechanical strain
Shape memory alloy

When subjected to thermal

field it undergoes some
thermal shape change.
Optical fibres

Fibres that use intensity,

phase, frequency to measure
strain, temperature, electric &
magnetic field.
Applications of smart materials

Used in aircrafts & space crafts to measure

vibrations & excessive deflections.
Smart concrete used in smart structures to detect
smaller cracks.
Catalytic materials that increase or decrease the rate
of reaction
All senser materials that can detect signals & adjust
sensitivity according to environment
Noise control
Recycling of material

 Recycling is the process in which we can

utilize the material left on construction site or
demolition of structure.
 Because of this supply of fresh material
required can be reduced
 And ultimately reduce environmental
 1) Crushed concrete used for road base,general fill
or pavement aggregate
 2) Asphalt pavement can be crushed & recycled
back into asphalt or in hot mix asphalt plant
 3) Metal can be melted down & uesd for metal
 4) Bricks can be used in base material in water
proofing treatment
 Most familiar materials to mankind.
 Not a high-technology materials but fantastic.
 The only material that can be reproduced and give oxygen
to human.
 Woods is very strong but yet lightweight.

Woods structure
Cross sectional
 Wood surface •portion of a round cross
section, clearly reveals an
nual growth rings.

Radial Surface
•cutting along a radius
of a round cross section

Tangential Surface
•cutting at a tangent to the growth
rings, or the surface you would see if
you were to view the outside of a log
Woods structure

 Annual Ring
 trees grow in both diameter and height during growth
periods that are interrupted by periods of rest.

Raining season Summer season

High water time Lower water time

Woods VS water
 Water caused negative effect to wood
 Wood, if not predried, will dry while in use under uncontrolled conditions
giving rise to warp, bow, twist, and similar defects.
 Wet wood is susceptible to attack by decay and stain fungi.
 Water must be removed to provide

 void space for preservatives if wood is

 to be treated for prevention
against fungal

Wood shrinkage
 Wood is an anisotropic material (having different
properties in 3 dimensions)
 Three Dimensions in which Wood Shrinks

Longitudinal = 0.1% to 0.3% L

Radial = 2.1% to 7.9%

Tangential = 4.7% to 12.7%

Mechanical Properties of woods
 Wood strength depends on density
 Given a high efficiency when subject to tensile strength
parallel to the fiber direction

Wood species Tensile // fiber Tensile radial Compress // fiber Compress radial
(MN.m-2 ) (MN.m-2 ) (MN.m-2 ) (MN.m-2 )

Maple 108 8 54 10
Oak 78 6 43 6
Pine 73 2 33 3

Comparison of the specific strength

 Specific strength (SF)= strength/density

Material SF strength SF modulus

(kg.m2.s-2 ) (kg.m2.s-2 )

Clear wood 178 2.4E4

Aluminum 127 2.7E4
1020 steel 50 2.7E4
Copper 38 1.4E4
Concrete 15 0.9E4

Wooden house


Chapter no-4

Sub structure or foundation

Components of Substructure

1) Foundation
2) Plinth-
3) D.P.C.-Layer between substr &
 Definition of foundation
 Bearing capacity
 ultimate bearing capacity:- It is the capacity of soil
before to failure in shear
 Safe bearing capacity= ultimate bearing capacity/
factor of safety
 F.O.S. for temporary structure=1.5 to 2, For footing=
2 to 3, for piles=2 to 6 & for rocky strata=5 to 10
Sketch of foundation
Functions of foundation

 1) To support the str

 2) To distribute the load over a wide spread
area to prevent buildg frm any movement
 3) To prevent unequal settlement
 4) To increse the stability of str.
 5) To transfer the load to thw sub soil
Settlement of foundation

 Verticaldownward movement of structure.

 Settlement is mainly due to change in volume.
 Amount of settlement is different for diff. soil &
 Eg. Clay soil settlement is more, Hard rock less
settlement is there.
Settlement of foundation

 Verticaldownward movement of structure.

 Settlement is mainly due to distortion of soil or
change in volume.
 Amount of settlement is different for diff. soil &
 Eg. Clay soil settlement is more, Hard rock less
settlement is there.
Types of settlements

1)Uniform settlement _ It will not cause any

damage to str,but excessive settlement will
damage undergroung utility services like water
supply,drainage lines,telephone & electric
2) Differential settlement – The diff in
magnitudes of settlement at any two points is
known as D.S,
Uniform settlement
Differential settlement
Causes of settlement

Loose soil strata below foundation

Excessive expansion & contraction of
swelling soil (Black cotton soil)
Excavation & pile driving in neighboring
Lowering of water table
due to earthquake
Causes of Failure of foundn

 1) Unequal
settlement of sub soil
 2) Withdrawal of Moisture from sub soil
 3) Horizontal movement of soil mass
 4) Atmospheric action
 5)Transpiration of trees & shrubs
Types of foundation
Shallow & deep foundation

1.Spread Footing
2.Wall Footing/Strip footing
3.Isolated Column Footing/Pad footing
4.Combined Footing
5.Cantilever or strap Footing
6.Mat or Raft Foundation
7.Grillage foundation
Deep foundation
1.Spread Footing

 Are used to distribute concentrated load from

the superstr over a wide area so as to enable
the soil bed to provide safe support
2.Wall Footing/Strip footing

 Used for light strs such as garden walls or

compound walls
 1) Simple footing
 2) Stepped footing
3.Isolated Footing/Pad footing

 These are used to support individual column.

 It is most commom used in modern
 It may be square,rectangular,circular or
sloped depending upon distribution of load
Isolated Footing
Isolated Footing
4.Strap footing/Cantilever
 Sometimes it is not possible to provide
footing exactly below the column due to its
projection beyond the column in that case
seprate footing is provided for interior &
exterior column
Strap footing
5.Combined Footing

 When loads on adjacent columns are very

high or bearing capacity of the soil is less
then two columns are grouped together to
form combined footing.

 When load is same then use rect combined

Combined Footing
Combined Footing
6.Raft or mat Foundation

 Mat or raft is a heavily reinforced inverse slab

placed over the entire area using heavily
beams from column to column
 Is used when bearing capacity is so less
 Is used when heavy load on the foundation
Raft or mat Foundation
7.Grillage foundation

Issuitable when load from the steel

columns is very heavy & bearing
capacity is so less
Grillage foundation
Pile foundation

 A pile is defined as a slender column

capable of transferring the structural
load to the deep underlying layers.
1) End Bearing pile -When piles transfer
the load of bldg to a grater depth
2) Friction pile - When piles transfer the
load by means of skin frictionwithout
any end
Pile foundation

It is the part which is above ground

 Superstructure  Substructure
1) Structural component 1) Structural component
above plinth upto top below plinth uoto
2) Transfers load from footing
upper part to sub str 2) Transfers load received
3) e.g.roof,beam floor from superstr to foundn
3) e.g.footing,basement &

1-Load bearing structures

2-Framed structures
3-Composite structure
1-Load bearing structures

 In this the load of the str is transferred through the

 Economical upto 2-4 storeys
 Is used when hard strata is available at shallow
 E.g,Shaniwarwadwa in pune
 COEP-these are stone walls
 If no.of storeys increases wall thk also increases &
reduces carpet area
Load bearing structure
2.Framed structure

 Load transferred through a frame of

slab,beam,column & footing to the underlying
 Constructed more than 100 storeys
 Used when hard strata is not available at
shallow depth.
 Speed of constn is fast
Framed structure
3.Composite structure

 The outer walls of load bearing type

where as column & beams provided
 Is used for industrial sheds or
warehouse where span is so large
Composite structure

1.Dead load
2.Live load
3.Wind load
4.Earthquake load

1.Dead load-load of material Unit

material in the constn of wt(KN/m3)
bldg, self wt of diff P.C.C. 24
comp.Dead load is
calculated by
R.C.C 25
multiplying its volm by
unit wt.of material Bricks 22
Steel 78
Stone 22
Brick 18
2.Live load

 Itis movable load acting on the,equipment & machinery
 Minimum L.L. is considered in design og bldg
dpending upon the type of bldg
Sr No Type of bldg Minm L.L. in
1 Residential 2.00
2 Office 2.45
3 Bank & reading room 3.00
4 Class room ,Assembly hall 4.00
5 Dining hall,Store room 5.00
6 factories ,Workshop 7.00
3.Wind load

 Isconsidered in tall bldgs

 P=kv2

P=Wind pressure in KN/m2

K=Coeff of wind velo.
4.Earthquake load

 4.Earthquakeforce = w.α/g

Α = accln due to earthquake =1/20g to 1/20g

 W = wt.of str
 G= gravitatational acccln
Comparison betn Load bearing &
framed str
Sr No Load bearing framed str

1 Hard strata at shallow Suitable for any strata

2 Allowed Upto 4 Multistoreyed
3 Slow & time Fast & speedy
consuming constn
4 Economical upto 2 Economical upto
storeys multisoreyedstoreys

5 It can not resist E.Q. Resist E.Q.forces


 Types
 1) Brick
 2) Stone
Sr No Brick Stone

1 Used brick & mortar for Used stone & mortar for
constn constn

2 Lesser wall thk.(min Higher wall thk.(300mm)

3 Less durable More durable
4 Less costly & easy to Costly & skilled Labor is
construct required
Fundamental requirements of masonry

 1) It should be strong enough to carry the

 2) It satisfies the I.S.for durability & strength
 3) Proper bonds to be maintained while
laying masonry
 4) It should be in level
 5) Thk should be such that it will offer
resistance to water current