POLYMER PLANT EQUIPMENT
y y y y y y y y y y

Equipment handled by PED in a typical Polymer Plant Centrifuge Rotary dryer Pneumatic Conveying System Metering Package Mixers (Homogeniser) Extruder & Pelletiser Delumper Dewatering Screen Pellet Dryer Classifier Screen Bagging & Palletising Systems

ETHYLENE H2

POLYMER PLANT REACTOR CENTRIFUGE EQUIPMENT
POLYMER SLURRY

SOLVENT (LIQ.) POLYMER CAKE

SOLVENT (VAP.)

ROTARY DRYER

SOLVENT CATALYST

HOMOGENISER MIXER
ADDITIVES STABILIZERS

METERING PACKAGE

POLYMER POWDER STORAGE

EXTRUSION & PELLETISING ELUTRIATION / SCREENING BAGGING STORAGE

DEWATERING

SPIN DRYING

CLASSIFICATION BLENDING

PELLET STORAGE BAGGING & PALLETISING

WAREHOUSING

The general idea behind centrifuges is therefore to ensure that the mechanical separation of different liquid phases and solids can be carried out on a rapid. sediment and solids gradually fall to the bottom. However. such clarification is an extremely slow process and is unable to meet industry's needs for rapid. .CENTRIFUGE y Purpose: To separate polymer solids from polymer slurry y Working Principle The basic centrifuge idea is based on what happens in a settling tank. controllable results. and the liquid phases of different density separate due to the force of gravity. continuous basis in order to meet the demands associated with modern industrial processes. in which particles.

a centrifuge is a settling tank whose base is wrapped around a centerline. . This force is then used to separate liquids from other liquids or solids.In essence. Rotating this entire unit rapidly means that the effect of gravity is replaced by a controllable centrifugal force that can have an effect upto 10.000 times greater.

SETTLING TANK SETTLING TANK WITH DISCS DISC STACK CENTRIFUGE .

CENTRIFUGE y Types: Horizontal Atmospheric Solid Bowl Vertical Pressurised Screen Bowl .

 Disc stack centrifuges. This applies to both liquid-liquid and liquid-solid separation. on the other hand.CENTRIFUGE  Decanter centrifuges are generally used for greater solids concentrations with larger particle sizes. are ideal for a wide range of separation tasks that involve lower solids concentrations and smaller particle and droplet sizes. .

CENTRIFUGE Amount of Solids Decanter Centrifuges 40% 30% 20% 10% Filters 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Particle Size(µm) Disc Stack Centrifuges .

. which contributes to speeding up the separation process dramatically. It is the particular configuration. shape and design of these plates that make it possible for a disc stack centrifuge to undertake the continuous separation of a wide range of different solids from either one or two liquids.Disc Stack Vertical Centrifuge Inserting special plates (the "disc stack") provides additional surface settling area.

The chambers can be sealed off from each other to prevent any risk of cross-contamination. Each separated liquid phase then leaves the bowl due to the force of gravity or by means of a paring disc.The concentrated solids phase formed by the particles can be removed continuously. The clarified liquid phase (or phases) overflow close to the rotating axis. intermittently or manually. which is a special pumping device. depending on centrifuge type and the amount of solids involved in the specific application. in the outlet area on top of the bowl. The liquids then flow into separate chambers. .

How a disc stack centrifuge works ?

A disc stack centrifuge separates solids and one or two liquid phases from each other in one single continuous process, using extremely high centrifugal forces. When the denser solids are subjected to such forces, they are forced outwards against the rotating bowl wall, while the less dense liquid phases form concentric inner layers. The area where these two different liquid phases meet is called the interface position. This can be easily varied in order to ensure that the separation takes place with maximum efficiency.

CENTRIFUGE

Solid Retention

Intermittent Solid Continuous Solid Discharge Discharge

CENTRIFUGE (BOWL TYPE)
The separated solids are conveyed by the helical screw conveyor along the bowl cylinder and over the conical section of the decanter to the solids discharge. s they pass over the cone, the solids dewater by a combination of drainage and compression, the degree of which is dependent on the nature of the solids, the adjustment of the centrifuge, and the required degree of dewatering.

CENTRIFUGE (SOLID BOWL) .

Unit capacities up to 100 tons/hr dry solids.CENTRIFUGE (SCREEN BOWL) Actually two machines in one combines the clarifying benefits of the solid bowl centrifuge and adds a final dewatering screen section to produce maximum dryness. . Best suited for crystalline or granular solids with free-draining characteristics.

CENTRIFUGE (SCREEN BOWL) .

CENTRIFUGE (VERTICAL) .

POLYMER DRYERS The wet slurry out of Centrifuge still has about 30% solvent / water. Types of Dryers:  Rotary Dryers  Fluidised Bed Dryers . This needs to be dried in Dryer.

ROTARY DRYER Type Of Rotary Dryers y Direct Fired Type y Steam Tube Type .

ROTARY DRYER (DIRECT FIRED TYPE) Operating Principle In direct fired dryers. hot air generated by firing of fuel is made to pass through rotating drum with lifters. dries the polymer powder which is conveyed either pneumatically or through rotating scroll ‡ . Hot air when comes in contact with the wet slurry.

and constant temperature can be set by steam pressure. Complete recovery is possible.ROTARY DRYER (STEAM TUBE TYPE) This unit gives continuous heating or cooling of solids in an inert atmosphere. Indirect heat transfer is effected by conduction and convection. . Unit operation is closed. ow sweeping gas required. or in a medium vacuum state or under pressure.

. Due to radiation and conduction effects.ROTARY DRYER (STEAM TUBE TYPE) The wet feed which has free flowing granular form is made to work over the rotating bundle of heated tubes. Due to effective turbulence the solids are dried uniformly. the moisture is evaporated and the product becomes progressively dry as it travels across the dryer and reaches final moisture level at the discharge point.

ROTARY DRYER .

ROTARY DRYER .

ROTARY DRYER (TYPICAL P&ID) .

agitated and suspended conditions by various gases. Heat is provided directly by burning fuel or injecting fuel to the fluid bed. maintenance- . Spent off-gas can be recycled for preheating air to save fuel offcosts. This is a relatively maintenance-free equipment. Heating elements for indirect heating by steam can also be installed.FLUIDISED BED DRYERS Materials are treated in fluidized.

Types of Metering Feeders:  olumetric Feeders  Gravimetric Feeders  Mass Flow Meters  Belt Feeders .METERING SYSTEMS Metering Systems are required for feeding of controlled and metered quantities of virgin Polymer Powder and other additives to impart the required properties to the end product.

Typical Compounding in Polymer Plant Loss in Weight Feeders .

Loss in Weight Feeder Mass Flow Feeder Loss in Weight Feeders .

work? in Weight per unit From the Loss time of the bin. the actual flow rate is compared with the set point and the feeder is controlled in such a way that the actual flow rate corresponds accurately and consistently with the set point. During the refilling the feeder operates volumetrically by the control magnitude stored during the gravimetric period of operation. .How and the supplyWeight Feeders Loss in bin are The Feeder weighed with material supply.

Types of Loss-in-Weight Feeders Vibro Feeder Single Screws Material Self Cleaning Double Screws Spirals or Double Spiral Powder For Granular Material For Powdery Non-Sticky For Powdery Sticky Material For Mixture of Pellets & .

Why Loss in weight as compared to Volumetric Feeding? .

SINGLE SCREW LOSS IN WEIGHT FEEDER .

Types of Feeding Devices .

Installation .

Some more Installations

Belt Weigh Feeder

Working Principle of Belt Weigh Feeder

Belt load and belt speed signals are routed to the microprocessorcontrolled measurement, control and regulation system, where they are processed and the actual feed rate is continuously compared with the set feed rate (set point) to assure that belt speed is controlled such that feed rate is maintained at a constant level.

Types of Feed Hoppers .

Types of Feed Hoppers .

The Coriolis force acting upon the feed material is measured with high precision by integrated load cell and it is exactly proportional to the mass flow. Feed material is fed to a measuring wheel running at a constant speed. . which acts upon a moving mass on a rotation wheel.Coriolis type Mass Flow Meters Measuring principle The Coriolis force is a force. even at varying bulk density and grain size. This physical law is the basis of Coriolis measuring systems.

Coriolis type Mass Flow Meters FZ = centrifugal force No impact to F c FR = friction force FC = CORIOLIS force M P = Z‡R2 FR FZ FC P = feed rate [t/h] M = torque = FC · R Z = angular velocity R = radius of measuring wheel [m] [1/s] .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER System Components: ‡ Extruder (Barrel & Screw) ‡ Diverter Valve ‡ Gear Pump ‡ Screen Changer ‡ Die Plate ‡ Underwater Pelletiser ‡ Hydraulic Oil Unit ‡ Hot Oil Unit / Barrel Cooling Water Unit ‡ Lube Oil Units ‡Pellet Cutting Water (PCW) Unit .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER ‡ Largest Power Consumer In A Polymer Plant ‡ High Operating/design Pressure (~350 g/cm2g) .

Finishing requirements .EXTRUDER & PELLETISER Parameters For System Design ‡ Capacity ( g/h) ‡ Melt Flow Index (MFI) Range ‡ Feed Inlet Temperature ‡ Feed Volatile Content ‡ Max Allowable Processing Temperature ‡ Density ‡ Product Pellet Size.

TYPES OF EXTRUDERS BASED ON NUMBER OF SCREWS: Single Screw Type Twin Screw Type BASED ON DIRECTION OF ROTATION Co-rotating Type Counter Rotating Type .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (MAIN DRIVE SYSTEM) Reduction Gear Process Side Distribution Gear Main Drive .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (MAIN DRIVE SYSTEM) .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (SPECIFIC ENERGY INPUT) Specific Energy Input Vs Throughput SEI kWh/kg 0.8 MFI 20 MFI Rate t / h .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (BARREL HEATING / COOLING) Electrical Heaters Steam ~ 40 bar Water Water .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (BARREL HEATING / COOLING) Barrel cooling circuit for water cooling Barrel heating circuit for steam heating .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (BARREL HEATING / COOLING) .

Barrel Heating / Cooling Manifold .

Barrel Heating / Cooling Manifold .

Barrel Heating / Cooling Manifold .

Barrel Junction Boxes

Barrel Junction Boxes
Heater shells (wired up to junction boxes) Junction boxes Cooling manifold (mounted)

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (SCREW SHAFTS) .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (SCREW SHAFTS) .

22) 2-flighted profile (Do/Di= 1.44 ± 1.2 Flight & 3 Flight Screws 3-flighted profile (Do/Di= 1.8) .

SLOT CONTROL .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (GEAR PUMP) .

Gear Pump Cross section .

Dual Pack Screen Changer Filter Elements Product Inlet Hydraulic Actuators Dual Cylindrical Slide Bars .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (SCREEN CHANGER) .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (SCREEN PACK) .

(SCREEN CHANGER & DIE PLATE) .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (DIE PLATE & CUTTER) .

Typical Die Plate Cross Section .

Multiple Row Design Twin Row Design Single Row Design More Heat Transfer Area .

EXTRUDER & PELLETISER (UNDERWATER PELLETISER) .

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PELLETISER CROSS SECTION .

PELLETISER CUTTER SETTING .

SPIN DRYER .

Surface moisture removal can be achieved upto 500 ppm level.SPIN DRYER Process Water is removed prior to the Product reaching the rotating impact stage resulting in less power consumption. This prevents the moisture from escaping with the product and further reduces the surface moisture level. The two level design prevents the Rotor from agitating constantly in water. reducing component stress and eliminating the need for expensive and maintenance intensive shaft seals. the product enters the rotor where it is picked up and conveyed upward through the dryer Air flow counter current to product flow is introduced in the upper portion of the dryer. . Once the majority of Process water is removed.

SPIN DRYER .

SPIN DRYER .

BLENDERS During production. Hence the need for Homogenising Blenders. variation in properties of product takes place due to various reasons. Types of Blenders:  Fluidised Silo Blenders (for Powders)  Static Multi Tube Blenders (for Pellets) . The customers demand a homogeneous product.

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or 50 Kg.BAGGING & PALLETISING Granular. Powder or Pellets Bagging & Palletisation for Polymers Types: y Fully Automatic y Semi Automatic y 25 Kg. Big Bag ( FIBC) y 20000kg F IBC Bag inside containers . Bag y 1000 Kg.

of Shifts Per Day y Effective Hours Per Shift y Weight Of Each Bag y Type Of System y Weighing Accuracy y Future Expansion Provision .BAGGING & PALLETISING Parameters For System Design y Design Basis Production Rate y No. of Days Per Year Operation y No.

Bph / Tph Weight of Bag Bag Specification / Type of Bag Gussetted or Pillow Bag Weighing Accuracy Material Characteristics Type Of Bag Closing .BAGGING & PALLETISING System Specifications y y y y y y y y Capacity .Sealing or Stitching Palletiser Capacity Wrapping Requirement .

BAGGING & PALLETISING Machine System Components y Weighing Cum Tipping M/c (Net Weigher) y Auto Bag Placer y Stitching / Sealing M/c y Check Weigher / Metal Detector y Ink Jet Printer y Belt Conveyors y Palletising M/c y Roller Conveyor y Fork Lift Trucks y Shrink / Stretch Wrapping .

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BAGGING & PALLETISING .

BAGGING & PALLETISING .

BAGGING & PALLETISING (NET WEIGHER) .

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Type of Bag Closures .

Bag Feed In Device .

MOVIE CLIP .

BAGGING & PALLETISING (STICHING MACHINE) .

Hand Stitching Machine .

Incorrectly weighing packs trigger a signal for removal.BAGGING & PALLETISING (CHECK WEIGHER) Check weighers check packed goods as they run through for compliance with the stated weight. .

They check the bags approaching the Palletizer for metallic foreign matter and if found positive.BAGGING & PALLETISING (METAL DETECTOR) Metal detectors are used for palletizing bags. direct them to a bag removal station. .

BAGGING & PALLETISING (BAG REJECTION / REMOVAL) Packages which are recognised as faulty are separated from the conveyed stream of packages via removal stations. as a baffle or reject push-plate . They can be executed as swivel-mounted belt sidings.

They are composed of a belt conveyor as bottom belt and a height-adjustable. swivel-agitated pressure plate positioned above it. .BAGGING & PALLETISING (Bag Flattening) Sack flattening stations are positioned upstream of the Palletizers in order to produce the most evenly flat cuboid shape. Depending on the bag fillings a model with vibratory bottom belt and a weighted pressure plate can be used. "irons" smooth the passing sacks.

for continuous numbering. . loads to packed or on to side surfaces of pallet-loads. Ink-jet coders inscribe the packages passing by with texts and markings using the inkjet process.Labelling and coding units apply Labelling or regulations ondetailsUnits and Coding of goods contents. The imprints can be changed on-line by appropriately equipped devices. e.g. also automatically from package to package. Computer controlled labelers print the labels and apply them as goods run past. mostly after stretching or shrinking.

Labelling and Coding Units .

BAGGING & PALLETISING (PALLETISER) .

PALLETISER .

PALLETISER .

PALLETISER .

PALLETISER .

PALLETISER .

BAGGING & PALLETISING (PALLETISER) .

The air ( from regulated pressure fan) emanating from the perforated slide-plate surface forms a slide-air film which relieves the positioning and depositing of the bags.Airated SlideAerated slide-plates and Plate preceding intermediate balcony are used for palletizing of bags with a high sliding friction coefficient such as film sacks. .

Robotic Palletiser .

Stretching and shrinking of the pallets in plastic film are proven safety processes. with which the shipping goods are simultaneously protected against soiling and dampness . scuffing with adjacent loads and falling from the stacked load.Pallet Security through Stretching and Shrinking Pallet loads are often exposed to considerable accelerative forces during transport and handling and must be protected from deformation.

which becomes very stiff after shrinking. especially in the case of greater film-thicknesses.BAGGING & PALLETISING (SHRINK WRAPPING) The film cover. withstands considerable stress caused by accelerative forces. .

G Glueing Unitslueing units serve to stabilise pallet loads. but permits depalletizing without damage to packages. brush or spray gun they apply a strip of glue on the packages as they run through. By means of roll. . The anti-slip glue strengthens the palletizedgoods layers .

. but storage and transport space is also gained. They have great stability even under harsh transport conditions. Such packages are shipping units with integrated transport security. As a result not only is the significant expense for pallet use spared. can be easily handled with the usual harnessing equipment and protect their contents hermetically tight against moisture and dirt.the contour-hood shrinkwrapping system The palletless shrink-wrap packaging replaces the pallet with the packaged goods themselves which becomes a self-supporting unit thanks to the shrinkwrapped cover.

. Another application is placing film or cardboard between the layers to stabilise the stack.Slip Sheet Applicator Papersheet applicator Film applicator Film applicators are used either for feeding of stacking films as slip sheets or. in another version. for laying plastic films on empty pallets to protect the first stack layer from ground dirt and moisture.

BAGGING & PALLETISING (FIBC BAG) FLEXIBLE INTERMEDIATE BULK CONTAINER .

BAGGING & PALLETISING (FIBC LAYOUT) .

.Bag Loaders Where bagged goods are to be loaded in the form of individual containers. Bag-loading can be almost completely automated with Autoloaders which stack the bagged goods directly onto truck loading surfaces or onto pallets placed on them. bag loading machines may be used in order to attain economy and to control the physical demands put on personnel.

.BAGGING & PALLETISING (AUTO LOADERS) Autoloader forms vehicle-wide layers of bags which are transferred by a stacking conveyor and forwarded to the loading head located over the vehicle loading surface. The loading head deposits the layers of bags on the vehicle and each time is lifted by one layer. After reaching the desired number of layers the Autoloader reverses by one stack length and positions the next stack.

The swivelling and inclineable telescopic loading belt at the boom end conveys the bags over the width of the vehicle to the depositing points. can drive their long booms via the rear deep into the vehicle. .Moveable Truck-loading Machines Moveable truck-loading machines. for loading of vehicles with fixed body and of containers.

. loading Machines moveable off-the-floor bag loading machines are installed on the building's roof located over the thoroughfare. Covered vehicles are loaded with a machine onto which a linked conveyor is lowered through the ceiling slit. The lowerable loading belt is moved down through a slit in the ceiling onto the open vehicle.Off-the-floor TruckTo load trucks in covered vehicle zones. the conveyor loading the horizontally moveable loading belt in a height-adjustable belt-seat .

Single and double jointed Wagon-loading Machines For loading of covered railway wagons of the normal type. Double jointed large volume loading-machines have a swivelling intermediate belt boom . single jointed loading machines are used.