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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

USING MINITAB
INTRODUCTION & DEFINE PHASE
By: -
Hakeem–Ur–Rehman
MS–Total Quality Management
MSc (Information & Operations Management)
IQTM–PU 1
PART–1
BUSINESS PROCESS
MANAGEMENT
1. What is a Process?
i. Value Added Vs Non-Value Added?
ii. Value Stream: Seven Types of Waste
iii.SIPOC Diagram
iv.Process Mapping & Its analysis
i. Exercises & Case Studies
2. What is a Quality?
3. Evolution of Quality Field
4. Organization’s Output Vs Outcome
5. 2
WHAT IS A PROCESS?
A PROCESS is a logical, related, sequential (connected) set of activities that
takes an input from a “supplier”, adds value to it, and produces an output that
goes to the “customer”.
Process
Inputs Outputs
Flow units Goods
(raw material, Resources: Labor & Capital Services
customers)
The Process View of an Organization

§Specify value: Value is defined by customer in terms of specific


products and services
§Identify the value stream: Map out all end-to-end linked
actions, processes and functions necessary for transforming
inputs to outputs to identify and eliminate waste
§Make value flow continuously: Having eliminated waste, make
remaining value-creating steps “flow” . Flow requires;
Understanding of time; Process control ; Eliminating
bottlenecks and stoppages; Eliminating unplanned rework
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Value Added & Non–Value
Added
Value Added Activity
§Transforms or shapes material or information or people
§And it’s done right the first time
§And the customer wants it
Non-Value Added Activity – Necessary Waste
§No value is created, but cannot be eliminated based on current
technology, policy, or thinking
§Examples: project coordination, company mandate, law
Non-Value Added Activity - Pure Waste
§Consumes resources, but creates no value in the eyes of the
customer
§Examples: idle/wait time, rework, excess checkoffs

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VALUE STREAM:
SEVEN TYPES OF WASTE
1.OVER-PRODUCTION: Creating too much material or
information
2.INVENTORY: Having more material or information than you
need
3.TRANSPORTATION: Moving material or information
4.UNNECESSARY MOVEMENT: Moving people to access or
process material or information
5.WAITING: Waiting for material or information, or material or
information waiting to be processed
6.DEFECTIVE OUTPUTS: Errors or mistakes causing the effort
to be redone to correct the problem
7.OVER-PROCESSING: Processing more than necessary to
produce the desired output

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OVERVIEW OF PROCESS MAPPING
In order to correctly manage a process, you must be
able to describe it in a way that can be easily
understood.
1. The preferred method for describing a process is to
identify if with a generic name, show the workflow
with a Process Map and describe its purpose with
an operational description.
2. The first activity of the Measure Phase is to
adequately describe the process under
investigation.

t
Start Step–A Step–B Step–C pec Step–D
s
In End

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OVERVIEW OF PROCESS MAPPING
§A Flowchart/Process Map is a diagram that uses
graphic symbols to represent the nature and flow of
the steps in a process / system.
§Deciding when & where to collect data

§ANALYZING THE PROCESS:


1. Evaluate the process performance (Cost of Poor
Quality, Defects, Inventory Levels, Cycle time,
Capacity & Utilization of the resources) at each
step.
2. Determine where process bottlenecks occur.
3. Identify non–value added activities which should be
deleted or modified.
4. Identify new process steps to be added to improve
overall performance.
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§
PROCESS MAPPING SYMBOLS

Process Symbol Database Symbol


“An Operation or Action step” “Electronically Stored Information”

Flow Line
Terminator Symbol
“Start or Stop Point in a process”

Inventory / Buffer
“Raw Material / Finished Goods Storage” Decision Point

Inventory / Buffer
“Partial Finished Goods
“Work In Process” Storage”

Document Symbol
“A Document or Report”
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PROCESS MAPPING LEVELS
§LEVEL–1: The Macro Process Map, sometimes called a Management Level
or viewpoint.

§LEVEL–2: The Process Map, sometimes called the worker level or


viewpoint. This example is from the perspective of the pizza chef.

§LEVEL–3: The Micro Process Map, sometimes called the Improvement


level or viewpoint. Similar to a level–2, it will show more steps and tasks
and on it will be various performance data; yields, cycle time, value and
non-value added time, defects, etc.
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TYPES OF PROCESS MAPS
THE LINEAR FLOW PROCESS MAP

A s th e n a m e sta te s, th e d ia g ra m sh o w s th e p ro ce ss ste p s in a
se q u e n tia l flo w , g e n e ra lly o rd e re d fro m a n u p p e r le ft co rn e r o f th e
m a p toTHE
w a rdDEPLOYMENT
s th e rig h t sidFLOW
e. or SWIM LANE PROCESS MAP

The value of the swim lane map is that is shows you who or which department
is responsible for the steps in a process. This can provide powerful
insights in the way a process performs. A timeline can be added to show how
long it takes each group to perform their work. Also each time work moves
across a swim lane, there is a “Supplier – Customer” interaction. This is
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usually where bottlenecks and queues form.
TYPES OF PROCESS MAPS: SIPOC DIAGRAM
§ The SIPOC diagram includes a high-level map of the process
that "maps out" its basic steps. Through the process, the
suppliers (S) provide input (I) to the process. The process (P)
your team is improving adds value, resulting in output (O)
that meets or exceeds the customer (C) expectations.
TYPES OF PROCESS MAPS: SIPOC DIAGRAM
§ Example SIPOC Diagram of Husband making wife a cup
of tea.
EXERCISRES & CASE STUDIES

PROCESS MAPPING &


ITS ANALYSIS
WHAT IS QUALITY?
§ David Garvin found that most definitions of quality were
either TRANSCENDENT, PRODUCT–BASED, USER–
BASED, MANUFACTURING–BASED, or VALUE–
BASED.
§ TRANSCENDENT:
§ “Level of Excellence”
§ PRODUCT BASED:
§ “Product Attributes”
§ USER BASED:
§ “Fitness for intended use”
§ VALUE BASED:
§ “Quality Vs Price”
§ MANUFACTURING BASED:
§ “Conformance to specifications”
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QUALITY EVOLUTION
Incorporates QC/QA activities into a
Proactive Approach company-wide system aimed at
Total Quality
satisfying the customer.
Management
Prevention 4 (involves all organizational functions)
Stop defects at source.
Zero defects
Quality Planned and systematic actions to
Assurance insure that products or services
3 conform to company requirements

Reactive Approach Operational techniques to make


Quality inspection more efficient & to reduce
Control the costs of quality. (example: SPC /
Detection 2
SQC)
Finding & Fixing
mistakes
Inspection Inspect products
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ORGANIZATION’S
OUTPUT Vs
OUTCOME
OUTCOME

Quality of Sales
COMPANY

Quantum of Sales

OUTPUT
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Quality Objectives EXAMPLE
OUTPUT OUTCOME
POST OFFICE Number of Letters Delivery Rate
Number of Post Offices Damage Rate

 Number of Transactions Transactions/day/person


UNIVERSITY Number of Students Graduate Competency Rate


Number of Teachers Job Placement Rate

Number of Programs Difference in Market Salary

Number of Branches % of Satisfied Graduates

% of Satisfied Employers

PRODUCTION Number of items Produced % Defectives / Rejected


DEPT. Types of Product Produced Cost of Production/item

Number of items/unit time

TESTING Number of tests Measurement Error %


DEPT. Types of Tests Delays of tests

Cost of unit test

HRD Number of persons hired Core Competence


Number of Trainings Duration of vacant posts

% of Poor Hiring
QUESTIONS

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