.TARIFF y A tariff is a tax imposed on goods involved in International Trade.

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€ .Export Tariff are the taxes that are levied on goods when they leave the country. € Transit Tariff are the taxes which are imposed on the goods as they pass through one country bound for another. € Import Tariff are the taxes on the goods which are imported.

policy. .NON-TARIFF Any government regulation. or procedure other than a tariff that has a effect of restricting international trade or effecting overseas investment becomes a non tariff barrier.

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Quotas € Quotas refers to numerical limits on the quantity of goods that may imported or exported by the country. .

Types of Quotas .

Tariff Quotas € It combines the feature of tariff as well as quota. . Under a tariff quota imports of a commodity up to a specified volume are allowed duty free or at a special low rate but any imports in excess of this limits are subject to duty or a higher rate of duty.

MIXING QUOTAS € Under this quota the producers are obliged to utilize the domestic rawmaterials up to a certain proportion in the production of the finished goods. .

VOLUNTARY QUOTAS o A voluntary quota is a formal agreement between nations or between a nation and an industry. This agreement usually specifies the supply of product and volume. .

Subsidies take several forms such as . and government equity participation in local firms. subsidies help domestic producers in two ways:they help them compete low-cost foreign imports and gain access to export markets. cash grants . . By lowering the costs. tax breaks. low-interests rates.SUBSIDIES € A Subsidy is a government payment to a domestic producer.

(it can also be termed as absolute quota) . It is the most restrictive non-tariff trade barrier. It may be placed on one or more goods or completely ban trade in all goods.EMBARGO € It refers to a complete ban on trade (import or export) in one or more products with a particular country.

.CURRENCY CONTROLS € Currency control refers to restrictions on the convertibility of currency into other currencies.

LOCAL CONTENT REQUIREMENTS € Local Content Requirements refers to the legal stipulation that a specified amount of a good or service be supplied by producers in a domestic market. .

PRODUCT & TESTING STANDARDS € This non-tariff barrier requires that foreign goods meet a country¶s domestic product or testing standards before they can be offered for sale in that country. .

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