INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND PREVENTIVE CONTROL
INTRODUCTION SAFETY IN INDUSTRY NEED FOR SAFETY ORGANIZATION FOR SAFETY SAFETY COMMITTEE SAFETY PROGRAMME SAFETY TRAINING AND INSTRUCTIONS ACCIDENTS CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS TYPES OF ACCIDENTS ACCIDENT PREVENTION
producing and processing of goods or merchandise. property or the environment in any facility or place involving the manufacturing.
. errors and other occurrences than an organization has determined could have a negative material effect on a process or end product. loss and danger to persons.INTRODUCTION
Measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury.
An internal control that is used to prevent undesirable events.
.SAFETY IN INDUSTRY
The modern safety movement started around 1912 with the First Cooperative Safety Congress and the organization of National Safety Council in U.A.S.
Office.From 1912 to the present time.
. remarkable advances have been made in reducing the rate and severity of accidents.
The importance of industrial safety was realized because every year millions of industrial accidents occur which result in either death or permanent disablement of the employees. accident hazards may be built in or eliminated. Shops and railway Premises Act etc. Safety begins on the drawing board when in the original design of tool or workplace layout. Loss of lives and accidents costs gradually led to the formation of Factories act.
processes and operation by educating and training workers and supervisors regarding safe practices on the shop floor.
SAFETY results from safe plant. tools. etc.) From the workmen¶s compensation side As a matter of training in and motivation towards safe work practices for workers
1. In an industry. 2. 2. safety may be considered From mechanical side ( equipments.
iii.NEED FOR SAFETY
Increasing rate of production Reducing production cost Reducing damage to equipment and machinery Preventing premature death of talented workers who are an asses to the society Preventing needless pain and suffering to its employees. ii.
Each shop supervisor may report to top executives as regards safety matters.ORGANIZATION FOR SAFETY
In a small concern each shop supervisor may be responsible for safety in his shop.
. a full fledged safety department may be created with the safety Director/Manager as its chief executive and a number of persons under him at different levels. he may treat safety as a secondary aspect. Since the shop supervisor has it main job to turn out production. With the growth in the size of the industry. For this reason sometimes safety function is taken care of by personnel officer or general foreman.
. It aids in developing safety consciousness as well as it is a policy making body on such safety matters that come before it.SAFETY COMMITTEE
It may consist of executives. supervisors and shop floor workers.
Its members should be asked to go on the shop floor and watch what is being done about the safety. publicizing them etc.
To get a maximum out of a safety committee It should be assigned specific problems and duties such as planning safety rules.
2. It should be asked to report periodically and what improvements have been made and what more can be done.
It does not have an end. It begins with the assumption that the most work-connected accidents can be prevented. It aims at reducing accidents and losses associated with them. It involves providing safety equipments and special training to the employees. where and why accidents occur. rather it is a continuous process to achieve adequate safety.
It tends to discover when.
vi. Enforcing safety rules
. iii. iv. processes and operations Educating all employees to work safely Studying and analyzing the accidents to prevent their occurrence in future Holding safety contests. safety weeks etc. ii.Elements of a safety programme
Support by top management Appointing a safety director Engineering a safe plant. vii.
Education 3. Enforcement
. Engineering 2. Enlistment 4.A safety programme includes mainly four E¶s 1.
.SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND TRAINING
Safety training involves
b) c) d) e) f)
Induction and orientation of new recruits to safety rules and practices. Explaining safety function. during. posters. films etc. to emphasize the need to act safely. on job training Efforts made by the first level supervisors Formulating employees safety committees Holding special employees safety meetings Displaying charts.
Educating employees to develop safety consciousness
Measures to be adopted to increase the awareness of a need for safety in the environment of work are as follows : Display of safety posters and films to remind workers of particular accidents. Ask the employee from the first day he starts work to adopt safety measures. vii.
ii. Elaborate on safety theme. removing and replacing any necessary safety devices. Providing simple and convenient safety devices. vi.
i. Hold safety competitions and award prizes to the winners. Providing allowances to the worker for setting. Create in employees a feeling of pride in safe work.
. Welcome all safety suggestions. Report safety activities to all employees. Conduct safety training lectures periodically. Mail information and literature pertaining to safety at the homes of the employees.Contd«
viii. xii. xiii. x. ix. Cross-mark all accident areas.
Hold regular safety meetings. xiv.
xi. Lay out work areas to reflect safety considerations.
accompanied by an injury. suddenly occurring and originating from external sources.
An industrial accident may be defined as an event. detrimental to the health of man. followed by disability or even death. and which is associated with the performance of a paid job.
Uncompensated wage losses to the injured employee. i.
ii. iii. Cost of medical care and hospitalization
Economic aspects (cost) of accidents An accident can be very costly to the injured employee as well as to the employer of the concern. including payment and overhead costs. There are some definite costs associated with the accidents : DIRECT COSTS Compensation insurance.
Costs of wages paid for time lost by workers not injured. Costs of replacing the injured employee. Cost of delays in production due to accident. iii. ii.
. Cost of safety engineers. Cost of reduction in efficiency of the injured worker when he joins the concern after getting recovered.
i. vii. recording and reporting of accidents and its causes. vi. Cost of lowered production by the substitute worker. supervisors and staff in investigating.
Costs of damage to equipment.2. materials and plant. viii. Costs of wages paid to the injured worker.
CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
An accident is an unplanned incident and for each such incident there is usually a specific cause or causes if one could but discover them.
Causes of accidents Technical causes Human causes Personal factors
7. 3. 8.
Unsafe mechanical design or construction Hazardous arrangement Improper machine guarding Unsafe apparel Detective agencies or devices Improper material handling Broken safety guards Protruding nails Leaking acid valve Untested boilers or pressure vessels
. 10.TECHNICAL CAUSES:
1. 4. 5. 9. 6. 2.
Inadequate rest pauses or breaks between working hours. Poor housekeeping. fumes and smokes and lack of proper ventilation. 3. 5. 7. 6.ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
1. Defective and inadequate illumination causing eyestrain. shadows etc.
9. 8. Too high a temperature to cause sweating and headache. Presence of dust. 2.
4. High speed of work because of huge workload. fatigue and drowsiness. equipment or processes. glares. bad odour and flash coming from the nearby machinery. Noise.
Too low a temperature to cause shivering Too high a humidity to cause uncomfort.
5. 12. 8. 2. 17. 4. 6.HUMAN CAUSES
1. 16. 10. 9. 13.
Age Health Number of dependents Financial position Home environment Lack of knowledge and skill Improper attitude towards work Incorrect machine habits Carelessness and recklessness Day dreaming and inattentiveness Fatigue Emotional stability High anxiety levels Mental worriness Unnecessary exposures to risk Non-use of safety devices Working at unsafe speeds Improper use of tools
. 11. 14. 15. 7. 3. 18.
Near accident Trivial Minor Serious Fatal
. 3. 5. 2.TYPES OF ACCIDENTS
Prevention of accidents is a true humanitarian concern Accident prevention is highly essential in an industry in order to Prevent injury to and premature death of employees Reduce operating and production costs Have a good employer-employee relationship High up the morale of employees. 3.
1. 4. Safety activities in the organization.
Accident prevention does not occur by itself.
. 3. 2. Personal protective devices. Safe material handling. there should be a consistent implementation of safety measures and safety programmes emphasizing the need for Safe workplace layout and working conditions.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING