Prasad Kularatne

Objective
y Understand the functions behind Physical layer and

Data Link layer of the OSI model with more in-depth treatment of the latter
y Framing

& Synchronization, Error Control, Flow Control, Reliable Delivery

y Understand the popular data link layer protocol

implementations
y Ethernet y Wi-Fi y PPP

Wireless LAN y Note: We will not go into details of the Physical Layer .25. ATM. GSM.Physical Layer y Standardizes transmission media y Cable types and specifications y Encoding and Decoding y Convert electrical pulses into signals that can be transmitted over the medium y Manchester codes. HSDPA. SDSL). 8B/10B etc. SONET. Frame Relay. xDSL (ADSL. X. y Common layer-1 communications y Ethernet.

Manchester coding y Block Codes: 4B5B. NRZI.Encoding/Decoding y Determines how the binary data is represented on the link or how a given bit stream should be converted into signals that can be transmitted over the media y Allows clock synchronization y Reduces in DC content (for electrical signals) y Detects and correct errors y Line codes and Block codes y Line codes: RZ. NRZ. 8B10B y Q: Which line coding/block coding are used in Ethernet. PPP and WLAN? .

.

Data Link Layer y Responsible for transport of packets received from the network layer in a reliable manner to the immediate link destination y Access control to physical media y To allow many nodes to share a common transmission medium y Framing y Synchronize the sender and receiver y Aid in devising error control mechanisms y Error control works on chunks of data rather than on a continuous steam of bits y Efficient switching .

Data Link Layer (cntd.) y Error Control y Detection of errors occurred in transit y How many bit errors can be detected? y Correction of errors y Detect and errors have occurred y In which bit position has the errors occurred y Flow Control y Address the problem of fast sender overl0ading a busy receiver y Uses a feedback mechanism to let sender know that he is sending too much .

Data Link layer in context .

Data Link Layer termination Ethernet PPP Source: Computer Networks. A Tanenbaum .

when to transmit and how to handle contention y Broadcast media vs. Point-to-Point y Typically original Ethernet LAN s are broadcast and WAN s are P2P y Broadcast media is shared y Mechanism to control access to media should be in place y Media Access Control (MAC) .Media Access Control y When to listen .

detect them and let others know of them y Used in original Ethernet standard Used in Wireless LAN s Obviously more overheads. less effective throughput y CSMA/CA: Collisions are prevented as much as possible y y .MAC protocols: CSMA y CS: Carrier Sense -> Is there anyone transmitting? y MA: Multiple Access -> I can hear what others can hear y When to transmit depends on how you would want to handle the contention y CSMA/CD: Collisions are NOT prevented.

CSMA/CD vs. CSMA/CA y Detection of collisions are possible in wired. but virtually impossible in wireless media Wireless medium is essentially half-duplex y Research is under way for full duplex wireless y Strength of the transmitted signal essentially masks detection of any other node transmission y If you cannot detect collisions you need to avoid occurring them as much as possible y y In Wireless LAN s negotiate for media access y This negotiation tells other nodes not to transmit till the intended communication is complete .

Framing: What is it? y At the Sender: Packets received has to be packaged into frames and sent reliably over the unreliable physical media y At the Receiver: Identify where the frame starts and where it ends y Requires some special bit sequence to indicate the start and the end y Synchronizing sender and receiver for frame transmission y Where does the frame starts and where does it end .

Framing: Approaches y Fixed length y Send a special character at the beginning and end of the frame y Send a special flag sequence at the beginning and end of the frame y What if the special character or flag sequence occurs in actual data? .

Error Control y Error Detection & Correction and a mechanism to deal with detected errors if correction is not possible y Can use either y Error-Correcting Codes (ECC) y Not all errors can be corrected y Usage: Many wireless networks y Error-Detecting Codes (EDC) y Just detect errors and deal with them (may be reject them) y Usage: Most wired networks (low BER and fast transmission speeds) .

Error Detection y Introduces some additional bits/bytes into the frame header y Mechanisms Parity checking (Even or Odd parity) y Checksum y Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) y y Not all errors can be detected Residual errors may remain y A good mechanism must minimize the residual errors y How to deal with residual errors? y .

Error Correction
y Mechanisms y FEC: Forward Error Correction y ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request y FEC is used when it is important to mitigate latency

than to avoid errors
y Voice, video transmission
y

It is OK to lose one or two frames that incurring latency if it has to retransmit!

y E.g. Hamming Codes

Reliable Delivery
y Mechanism: ARQ y Acknowledge the received frame y Timer to stop waiting indefinitely for an ACK y Sequence Numbering
y y

Identify what is acknowledged Distinguish between transmissions and retransmissions

y Protocols y Idle ARQ: Stop and Wait y Continuous ARQ: Sliding Window protocols
y y y

n-bit sliding window Go-back-n Selective Repeat

Go-Back-N
y Receiver Windows Size = 1; Sender Windows Size = N

y The sender keeps transmitting until the number of

unacknowledged frames equals its window size y Still if it doesn t receive what it expects it starts resending everything in the window
Source: Computer Networks, A Tanenbaum

Go-Back-N issues y A pipeline (continuing to send frames when the past frames have not yet been acknowledged) is a good idea y Fairly simple and fast mechanism and Frames are always received in order. no need to re-order y When the pipeline breaks. a lot of retransmission is needed y Can we avoid unnecessarily sending frames? .

y No need for sender to re-send buffered frames Source: Computer Networks. A Tanenbaum .Selective Repeat ARQ y Receiver Windows Size = 1. then it starts resending everything not acknowledged. Sender Windows Size = N y The sender keeps transmitting frames till a NACK is received. y The receiver can buffer (and reorder) frames after sending a NACK.

DLL has to reassemble .Selective Repeat ARQ issues y Assumptions y A pipeline is a good idea y Unique sequence numbers can be generated and sent y Very fast and when pipeline breaks less retransmissions are required y But frames are received out of order when pipeline breaks.

Flow Control y Idea: Sender does not flood the receiver. but maximizes throughput y Sender throttles until receiver grants permission Same Sliding Window protocols are used with the receiver window tuned based on the size of receive buffer space y Mechanism y To advertise Receiver window size (use ACK frame) y To block the Sender if Receiver Windows size is zero .

) y Receiver Window size y Increases when network layer takes control y Decreases when packets are received from the sender y Sender window size y Increases when ACK s are received y Packets in sender window must be buffered at source y Why? May be needed for retransmissions .Flow Control (cntd.

Flow Control Example Sender Application Does a 2K Write Receiver Receiver Buffer 0K Empty 2K 4K Application Does a 3K Write Full Sender is blocked Application Reads 2K 2K Sender may send up to 2K 1K 2K .

Individual Assignment y Examine what Media Access Control. it is important to extend Ethernet VLAN s to Wireless LAN environment as well. Error control. Briefly describe how Wireless LAN s can accommodate this requirement . With Wireless LAN s becoming commonplace in todays enterprise network access layer. flow control and framing techniques are used in the following DLL protocols y Ethernet y Wi-Fi y Ethernet Virtual LAN s are a layer-2 technology that allows multiple logical networks to be carved out from a single physical network.

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DLL Protocols y Most popular Data Link Layer protocols y Ethernet (most popular Wired-LAN protocol) y Wi-Fi (Wireless LAN protocol) y PPP (a popular WAN protocol) y We will discuss Ethernet protocol and Wi-Fi in detail .

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3z: 1Gbps Ethernet y 802.Ethernet y The most dominant DLL protocol in the networking world y Demonstrated the fastest growth in last 5-7 years y Speed: 100Mbps -> 10Gbps (three orders of magnitude) y Range: LAN -> MAN -> WAN y Part of Physical layer and Data Link Layer y Standardized under IEEE 802.3 y 802.3u: Fast Ethernet y 802.3ae: 10Gbps Ethernet Same Frame format Addressing Ease of deployment Cost effectiveness .

unacknowledged .Services to network layer y Connectionless unacknowledged service to the network layer y Provide unreliable communication interface y Considering the reliability of frame transmissions in LAN environments frame losses are less y Remember Concepts: y y Connection oriented vs. Connectionless Acknowledged vs.

MAC layer y CSMA/CD y Addresses issues with transmission over shared media y y y Ethernet Bus topology Ethernet Hub Half duplex operation y Not relevant today y Ethernet networks are full duplex. switched y 10Gbps Ethernet does not even talk about this .

multicast. A Tanenbaum .Ethernet Framing FCS y Preamble allows receiver to obtain clock synchronization y Addressing y 6-byte world unique y Unicast. broadcast y Length of data field has to be between 46 Bytes 1500 Bytes (pad if less than 46 B) y Error control: 32-bit CRC [FCS] Source: Computer Networks.

Ethernet Flow Control y Standardized under IEEE 802.3x y Paces a high speed transmitter y Can be a any network element: switch or a host y Receiving station upon overwhelming traffic ingestion sends a PAUSE MAC control frame to a multicast address y Control frame carries how long to wait before sending the next message y Enhanced and used in Data Center Ethernet (DCE) y Discussed later .

org .1Q: VLAN s y IEEE 802.10gea.1P: LAN based QoS y IEEE 802.1: LAN/MAN Bridging and Management y We will discuss those applicable to the management of Ethernet based LAN s IEEE 802.1D: Spanning Tree Protocol y Source: www.Ethernet Management Infrastructure y IEEE 802.

VLAN-aware hosts Source: Computer Networks.1Q: VLAN y VLAN: Gives a logical topology to LAN s y Segments network load (traffic isolation) y Segments broadcast domains y Facilitates MAC s (Moves. Adds. A Tanenbaum . Changes) y Improves security y VLAN-aware switches vs.IEEE 802.

VLAN: Applications y Use of VLAN tagging in y Virtualized server environments y Blade Servers y Design LAN s based on a topology aligned with business organization rather than physical location of network elements y Separate out LAN-based backup traffic. management traffic to separate VLAN s .

IEEE 802.down to "loss eligible" traffic y Enhanced and used in offering flow control per priority in Data Center Ethernet (discussed later) .1P: Prioritization y Prioritization of LAN traffic y Level 7: Network-critical traffic (Routing) y Level 5 & 6: Delay-sensitive applications (interactive video and voice) y Level 1 through 4: Controlled-load applications streaming multimedia and business-critical traffic carrying SAP data.

1D: Spanning Tree Protocol y Prevent loops from occurring in a LAN y Automatically activates redundant links in failure scenarios y Idea y Go through each path in the LAN and figure out a topology that is loop-free (Tree) y Determine the ISL ports that can be used to maintain just enough connectivity among all segments (The tree is spanning all segments) y Block all other ports .IEEE 802.

Spanning Tree Algorithm y All switches are assigned a Bridge ID y Select Root Bridge as the node with the lowest bridge ID and MAC address y Mark Root Port in all other switches such that it has the least cost to the Root Bridge y For each LAN segment. select the bridge with least cost to the root bridge and mark the corresponding port as the Designated Port y Forward frames only over Root & Designated ports and block all others .

Spanning Tree illustration Bridge ID: 1 Bridge ID: 2 Root Port Designated Port Blocked Port Bridge ID: 3 Bridge ID: Note on Breaking the ties ‡ ‡ Equal cost paths through different bridges -> Select the path to the bridge with lowest Bridge ID Equal cost paths through the same bridge -> Select the path that connect to the lowest Port ID .

To address the shortcomings of the conventional STP Takes a long time to converge upon a bridge/link failure y Poor link utilization y y IEEE 802.STP Enhancements y Why? .1W: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) y Improve the convergence time y IEEE 802.1S: Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Use redundant links for load balancing y Traffic of different VLAN s spans through different redundant links between the same set of switches y .

35 <-> STPi2 .20.25.30 <-> STPi1 VLANs 15.Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Bridge ID: 1 Bridge ID: 2 Bridge ID: 1 Bridge ID: 2 Root for STPi1 Root for STPi2 Bridge ID: 3 Bridge ID: 4 Bridge ID: 3 Bridge ID: 4 Res lting traffic flo (all lin s sed) VLAN to MSTP instance Mappings VLANs 10.

iSCSI. increase in concurrent server connections y Compatible to Ethernet and Fast Ethernet (UTP Cat-5) y Same MAC layer as Fast Ethernet y Burrowed Physical Layer from Fibre Channel y Support for MM and SM fiber y 8B/10B encoding y Support for jumbo frames y Ideal for high throughput applications y NFS. CIFS.Gigabit Ethernet y Why? . backup traffic . file serving.Proliferation of bandwidth hungry apps y Content networking.

Gigabit Ethernet overview Source: Broadband Network Technologies. Technical University of Berlin .

Technical University of Berlin .Gigabit Ethernet (Protocol Stack) Source: Broadband Network Technologies.

GigE Distance specifications Source: Broadband Network Technologies. Technical University of Berlin .

Ethernet Broadband y IEEE 802.10Gbps Ethernet y Objective I: Promote Ethernet s LAN experience to WAN s .1Q enables services provider capabilities y Defines two PHY options LAN PHY and WAN PHY y Separate WAN PHY allows Ethernet over existing telco networks y Objective II: Data Center Ethernet y Increased load on LAN s due to y y Server virtualization I/O consolidation .1P and 802.

Ethernet Broadband y IEEE 802.10gea.1P and 802.htm .org/ethernet-wan.1Q standards allow Service differentiation (802.1P) y Traffic separation and security (VLAN) y Source: http://www.

1Qaz: Bandwidth Management y IEEE 802.1Qau: Congestion Notification y IEEE 802.1Qbb: Priority Flow Control y IEEE 802.1Aq: Shortest Path Bridging .Data Center Ethernet (DCE) y Architectural extensions to address increased traffic load & new traffic types in Data Center caused by Server virtualization and I/O consolidation y Also known as Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) y IEEE 802.

1Qbb: Priority Flow Control y Combined use of Flow Control (IEEE 802.1p) y Send PAUSE frame on a per-user-priority basis y Loss sensitive protocols (Fibre Channel) to get a lossless lane Ethernet Enhancements supporting I/O consolidation.IEEE 802.3x) and Prioritization (IEEE 802. . Nuova Systems Inc.

1Qaz: BW Management y Re-allocate the unused bandwidth in one traffic class to another in need of more bandwidth y Allow for bursty LAN traffic while guaranteeing bandwidth for Fibre Channel traffic Ethernet Enhancements supporting I/O consolidation. . Nuova Systems Inc.IEEE 802.

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but a set of standards that defines the compliance of devices to IEEE 802.11 y IEEE 802. flow control and error control here y They are covered via the Assignment .11 defines a set of protocols that defines the physical and data link layers of Wireless LAN y We will not discuss MAC. framing.What is Wi-Fi? y Its not a protocol.

X-Rays Low Low High High High Light violet 2.Unlicensed Frequency Bands Short-Wave Radio AM Broadcast Audio FM Broadcast Television Cellular (840MHz) NPCS (1. Todd Lammle .11n 5 GHz (IEEE 802.4±2.5 MHz (IEEE 802.11a) IEEE 802.g) IEEE 802.11b.11n Source: Wireless Protocols.9GHz) Infrared Wireless LAN Extremely Very Low Medium High Very Ultra Super Infrared Visible Ultra.4835 GHz 83.

WLAN design goals y Easy to use and plug-and-play setup y Enables operation globally over wireless y Uses license-free ISM band of frequencies y Low power operation y Extend the use to cover battery operated devices y Easily inter-operate with the existing wired infrastructure protecting the committed investments y Support for mobility through roaming .

11x Wi-Fi 100m.16e WMAN IEEE 802.Wi-Fi in IEEE 802 Broadband Mobility IEEE 802. Source: Wireless Broadband Mobility.15 Bluetooth 10m. WPAN IEEE 802.16 / ETSI HiperMAN WiMAX (256-FFT OFDM) 48+ km. Shawn Taylor . WLAN IEEE 802.

WLAN terminology y Access Point (AP): Provides co-ordination of communication within a BSS and provides services to integrate with the Distribution System y Basic Service Set (BSS): One or more wireless nodes that share a single Access Point (co-ordination function) y Extended Service Set (ESS): One or more BSS s connected via Access Points .

) y Distribution System (DS): Network that interconnects several BSS s to form an ESS y Portal: Function that allows BSS to integrate with the non IEEE 802.WLAN Terminology (Cntd.11 network .

11 LAN BSS1 STA1 Access Point Portal STA5 BSS3 Access Point STA4 Portal Access Point Distribution System (DS) Portal STA2 BSS2 ESS STA3 .WLAN terminology illustrated 802.

11 LAN BSS1 STA1 Access Point STA5 BSS3 Access Point STA4 Wireless Access Point Distribution System (DS) Portal 802.Portal function 802.3 LAN STA2 BSS2 ESS STA3 .

Re-association & de-association Distribution service and Integration service Source: CWAP Certified Wireless Analysis Professional Official Study Guide.Services offered by a DS Association. Devin Akin and Jim Geier .

WLAN topologies y Infrastructure WLAN y A set of wireless nodes whose communication is coordinated via an access point y Ad-hoc WLAN y A set of wireless nodes that established communication between them without a central coordinator .

3 or 4 20 MHz or 40 MHz Modulation Technique OFDM DSSS or CCK RF-Band Number of Spatial Streams Channel Width 5 GHz 1 20 MHz 2.11 standards Criteria 802.11a 802.11n Maximum Data Rate 54 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps DSSS or CCK or OFDM 2.11g 802.4 GHz 1 20 MHz .4 GHz 1 20 MHz 600 Mbps DSSS or CCK or OFDM 2. 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz 1.11b 802.IEEE 802.

11n y Need for higher data rates & longer range y Increased adoption of bandwidth hungry LAN applications y Voice. file serving etc.11n to address the above requirements y Re-engineer the Physical layer y Enhance the MAC layer . Mainly increase in the range y Need for more simplified and flexible WLAN deployments y y Features introduced in IEEE 802.IEEE 802. Gaming & multimedia. Video.

html .1n: Re-engineering PHY y Key technology .IEEE 802.com/ydict.MIMO y Option for the use of an increased frequency band y Use of dual-band antennas 40 MHz channel BW Source: http://www.computerlanguage.

MIMO y Uses a technique called Spatial Multiplexing y Input data stream is split into multiple streams and fed into multiple transmit antennas y Each antenna transmit them in parallel y At the received parallel data streams are merged to reconstruct the original data stream .

hence the effective throughput y Frame Aggregation y Increases the Maximum Frame Size at the MAC layer Service Frames: 2304 Bytes -> 8 kB y Data Frames: 2304 Bytes -> 64 kB y Benefits especially voice and video traffic y .IEEE 802.11n: Enhanced MAC layer y Block Acknowledgements y Send only one ACK for a number of frames y ACK overhead is minimized.

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