Prasad Kularatne

y Understand the functions behind Physical layer and

Data Link layer of the OSI model with more in-depth treatment of the latter
y Framing

& Synchronization, Error Control, Flow Control, Reliable Delivery

y Understand the popular data link layer protocol

y Ethernet y Wi-Fi y PPP

X. GSM. HSDPA. Wireless LAN y Note: We will not go into details of the Physical Layer .25. Frame Relay.Physical Layer y Standardizes transmission media y Cable types and specifications y Encoding and Decoding y Convert electrical pulses into signals that can be transmitted over the medium y Manchester codes. ATM. y Common layer-1 communications y Ethernet. SDSL). 8B/10B etc. SONET. xDSL (ADSL.

NRZ. NRZI. 8B10B y Q: Which line coding/block coding are used in Ethernet.Encoding/Decoding y Determines how the binary data is represented on the link or how a given bit stream should be converted into signals that can be transmitted over the media y Allows clock synchronization y Reduces in DC content (for electrical signals) y Detects and correct errors y Line codes and Block codes y Line codes: RZ. PPP and WLAN? . Manchester coding y Block Codes: 4B5B.


Data Link Layer y Responsible for transport of packets received from the network layer in a reliable manner to the immediate link destination y Access control to physical media y To allow many nodes to share a common transmission medium y Framing y Synchronize the sender and receiver y Aid in devising error control mechanisms y Error control works on chunks of data rather than on a continuous steam of bits y Efficient switching .

) y Error Control y Detection of errors occurred in transit y How many bit errors can be detected? y Correction of errors y Detect and errors have occurred y In which bit position has the errors occurred y Flow Control y Address the problem of fast sender overl0ading a busy receiver y Uses a feedback mechanism to let sender know that he is sending too much .Data Link Layer (cntd.

Data Link layer in context .

A Tanenbaum .Data Link Layer termination Ethernet PPP Source: Computer Networks.

when to transmit and how to handle contention y Broadcast media vs. Point-to-Point y Typically original Ethernet LAN s are broadcast and WAN s are P2P y Broadcast media is shared y Mechanism to control access to media should be in place y Media Access Control (MAC) .Media Access Control y When to listen .

less effective throughput y CSMA/CA: Collisions are prevented as much as possible y y . detect them and let others know of them y Used in original Ethernet standard Used in Wireless LAN s Obviously more overheads.MAC protocols: CSMA y CS: Carrier Sense -> Is there anyone transmitting? y MA: Multiple Access -> I can hear what others can hear y When to transmit depends on how you would want to handle the contention y CSMA/CD: Collisions are NOT prevented.

but virtually impossible in wireless media Wireless medium is essentially half-duplex y Research is under way for full duplex wireless y Strength of the transmitted signal essentially masks detection of any other node transmission y If you cannot detect collisions you need to avoid occurring them as much as possible y y In Wireless LAN s negotiate for media access y This negotiation tells other nodes not to transmit till the intended communication is complete .CSMA/CD vs. CSMA/CA y Detection of collisions are possible in wired.

Framing: What is it? y At the Sender: Packets received has to be packaged into frames and sent reliably over the unreliable physical media y At the Receiver: Identify where the frame starts and where it ends y Requires some special bit sequence to indicate the start and the end y Synchronizing sender and receiver for frame transmission y Where does the frame starts and where does it end .

Framing: Approaches y Fixed length y Send a special character at the beginning and end of the frame y Send a special flag sequence at the beginning and end of the frame y What if the special character or flag sequence occurs in actual data? .

Error Control y Error Detection & Correction and a mechanism to deal with detected errors if correction is not possible y Can use either y Error-Correcting Codes (ECC) y Not all errors can be corrected y Usage: Many wireless networks y Error-Detecting Codes (EDC) y Just detect errors and deal with them (may be reject them) y Usage: Most wired networks (low BER and fast transmission speeds) .

Error Detection y Introduces some additional bits/bytes into the frame header y Mechanisms Parity checking (Even or Odd parity) y Checksum y Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) y y Not all errors can be detected Residual errors may remain y A good mechanism must minimize the residual errors y How to deal with residual errors? y .

Error Correction
y Mechanisms y FEC: Forward Error Correction y ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request y FEC is used when it is important to mitigate latency

than to avoid errors
y Voice, video transmission

It is OK to lose one or two frames that incurring latency if it has to retransmit!

y E.g. Hamming Codes

Reliable Delivery
y Mechanism: ARQ y Acknowledge the received frame y Timer to stop waiting indefinitely for an ACK y Sequence Numbering
y y

Identify what is acknowledged Distinguish between transmissions and retransmissions

y Protocols y Idle ARQ: Stop and Wait y Continuous ARQ: Sliding Window protocols
y y y

n-bit sliding window Go-back-n Selective Repeat

y Receiver Windows Size = 1; Sender Windows Size = N

y The sender keeps transmitting until the number of

unacknowledged frames equals its window size y Still if it doesn t receive what it expects it starts resending everything in the window
Source: Computer Networks, A Tanenbaum

a lot of retransmission is needed y Can we avoid unnecessarily sending frames? .Go-Back-N issues y A pipeline (continuing to send frames when the past frames have not yet been acknowledged) is a good idea y Fairly simple and fast mechanism and Frames are always received in order. no need to re-order y When the pipeline breaks.

Sender Windows Size = N y The sender keeps transmitting frames till a NACK is received.Selective Repeat ARQ y Receiver Windows Size = 1. then it starts resending everything not acknowledged. y The receiver can buffer (and reorder) frames after sending a NACK. A Tanenbaum . y No need for sender to re-send buffered frames Source: Computer Networks.

Selective Repeat ARQ issues y Assumptions y A pipeline is a good idea y Unique sequence numbers can be generated and sent y Very fast and when pipeline breaks less retransmissions are required y But frames are received out of order when pipeline breaks. DLL has to reassemble .

but maximizes throughput y Sender throttles until receiver grants permission Same Sliding Window protocols are used with the receiver window tuned based on the size of receive buffer space y Mechanism y To advertise Receiver window size (use ACK frame) y To block the Sender if Receiver Windows size is zero .Flow Control y Idea: Sender does not flood the receiver.

) y Receiver Window size y Increases when network layer takes control y Decreases when packets are received from the sender y Sender window size y Increases when ACK s are received y Packets in sender window must be buffered at source y Why? May be needed for retransmissions .Flow Control (cntd.

Flow Control Example Sender Application Does a 2K Write Receiver Receiver Buffer 0K Empty 2K 4K Application Does a 3K Write Full Sender is blocked Application Reads 2K 2K Sender may send up to 2K 1K 2K .

Individual Assignment y Examine what Media Access Control. With Wireless LAN s becoming commonplace in todays enterprise network access layer. Briefly describe how Wireless LAN s can accommodate this requirement . Error control. flow control and framing techniques are used in the following DLL protocols y Ethernet y Wi-Fi y Ethernet Virtual LAN s are a layer-2 technology that allows multiple logical networks to be carved out from a single physical network. it is important to extend Ethernet VLAN s to Wireless LAN environment as well.


DLL Protocols y Most popular Data Link Layer protocols y Ethernet (most popular Wired-LAN protocol) y Wi-Fi (Wireless LAN protocol) y PPP (a popular WAN protocol) y We will discuss Ethernet protocol and Wi-Fi in detail .


3u: Fast Ethernet y 802.3 y 802.3ae: 10Gbps Ethernet Same Frame format Addressing Ease of deployment Cost effectiveness .Ethernet y The most dominant DLL protocol in the networking world y Demonstrated the fastest growth in last 5-7 years y Speed: 100Mbps -> 10Gbps (three orders of magnitude) y Range: LAN -> MAN -> WAN y Part of Physical layer and Data Link Layer y Standardized under IEEE 802.3z: 1Gbps Ethernet y 802.

Services to network layer y Connectionless unacknowledged service to the network layer y Provide unreliable communication interface y Considering the reliability of frame transmissions in LAN environments frame losses are less y Remember Concepts: y y Connection oriented vs. unacknowledged . Connectionless Acknowledged vs.

switched y 10Gbps Ethernet does not even talk about this .MAC layer y CSMA/CD y Addresses issues with transmission over shared media y y y Ethernet Bus topology Ethernet Hub Half duplex operation y Not relevant today y Ethernet networks are full duplex.

Ethernet Framing FCS y Preamble allows receiver to obtain clock synchronization y Addressing y 6-byte world unique y Unicast. A Tanenbaum . multicast. broadcast y Length of data field has to be between 46 Bytes 1500 Bytes (pad if less than 46 B) y Error control: 32-bit CRC [FCS] Source: Computer Networks.

3x y Paces a high speed transmitter y Can be a any network element: switch or a host y Receiving station upon overwhelming traffic ingestion sends a PAUSE MAC control frame to a multicast address y Control frame carries how long to wait before sending the next message y Enhanced and used in Data Center Ethernet (DCE) y Discussed later .Ethernet Flow Control y Standardized under IEEE 802.

org .1: LAN/MAN Bridging and Management y We will discuss those applicable to the management of Ethernet based LAN s IEEE 802.1D: Spanning Tree Protocol y Source: www.1P: LAN based QoS y IEEE 802.1Q: VLAN s y IEEE 802.Ethernet Management Infrastructure y IEEE 802.10gea.

VLAN-aware hosts Source: Computer Networks. A Tanenbaum .IEEE 802. Adds.1Q: VLAN y VLAN: Gives a logical topology to LAN s y Segments network load (traffic isolation) y Segments broadcast domains y Facilitates MAC s (Moves. Changes) y Improves security y VLAN-aware switches vs.

management traffic to separate VLAN s .VLAN: Applications y Use of VLAN tagging in y Virtualized server environments y Blade Servers y Design LAN s based on a topology aligned with business organization rather than physical location of network elements y Separate out LAN-based backup traffic.

IEEE 802.down to "loss eligible" traffic y Enhanced and used in offering flow control per priority in Data Center Ethernet (discussed later) .1P: Prioritization y Prioritization of LAN traffic y Level 7: Network-critical traffic (Routing) y Level 5 & 6: Delay-sensitive applications (interactive video and voice) y Level 1 through 4: Controlled-load applications streaming multimedia and business-critical traffic carrying SAP data.

IEEE 802.1D: Spanning Tree Protocol y Prevent loops from occurring in a LAN y Automatically activates redundant links in failure scenarios y Idea y Go through each path in the LAN and figure out a topology that is loop-free (Tree) y Determine the ISL ports that can be used to maintain just enough connectivity among all segments (The tree is spanning all segments) y Block all other ports .

select the bridge with least cost to the root bridge and mark the corresponding port as the Designated Port y Forward frames only over Root & Designated ports and block all others .Spanning Tree Algorithm y All switches are assigned a Bridge ID y Select Root Bridge as the node with the lowest bridge ID and MAC address y Mark Root Port in all other switches such that it has the least cost to the Root Bridge y For each LAN segment.

Spanning Tree illustration Bridge ID: 1 Bridge ID: 2 Root Port Designated Port Blocked Port Bridge ID: 3 Bridge ID: Note on Breaking the ties ‡ ‡ Equal cost paths through different bridges -> Select the path to the bridge with lowest Bridge ID Equal cost paths through the same bridge -> Select the path that connect to the lowest Port ID .

1W: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) y Improve the convergence time y IEEE 802.1S: Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Use redundant links for load balancing y Traffic of different VLAN s spans through different redundant links between the same set of switches y .To address the shortcomings of the conventional STP Takes a long time to converge upon a bridge/link failure y Poor link utilization y y IEEE 802.STP Enhancements y Why? .

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Bridge ID: 1 Bridge ID: 2 Bridge ID: 1 Bridge ID: 2 Root for STPi1 Root for STPi2 Bridge ID: 3 Bridge ID: 4 Bridge ID: 3 Bridge ID: 4 Res lting traffic flo (all lin s sed) VLAN to MSTP instance Mappings VLANs 10.25.30 <-> STPi1 VLANs 15.35 <-> STPi2 .20.

iSCSI.Gigabit Ethernet y Why? . file serving.Proliferation of bandwidth hungry apps y Content networking. increase in concurrent server connections y Compatible to Ethernet and Fast Ethernet (UTP Cat-5) y Same MAC layer as Fast Ethernet y Burrowed Physical Layer from Fibre Channel y Support for MM and SM fiber y 8B/10B encoding y Support for jumbo frames y Ideal for high throughput applications y NFS. CIFS. backup traffic .

Gigabit Ethernet overview Source: Broadband Network Technologies. Technical University of Berlin .

Technical University of Berlin .Gigabit Ethernet (Protocol Stack) Source: Broadband Network Technologies.

GigE Distance specifications Source: Broadband Network Technologies. Technical University of Berlin .

1P and 802.1Q enables services provider capabilities y Defines two PHY options LAN PHY and WAN PHY y Separate WAN PHY allows Ethernet over existing telco networks y Objective II: Data Center Ethernet y Increased load on LAN s due to y y Server virtualization I/O consolidation .10Gbps Ethernet y Objective I: Promote Ethernet s LAN experience to WAN s .Ethernet Broadband y IEEE 802.

htm .10gea.1P and 802.1P) y Traffic separation and security (VLAN) y Source: Broadband y IEEE 802.1Q standards allow Service differentiation (802.

1Qbb: Priority Flow Control y IEEE 802.1Qau: Congestion Notification y IEEE 802.Data Center Ethernet (DCE) y Architectural extensions to address increased traffic load & new traffic types in Data Center caused by Server virtualization and I/O consolidation y Also known as Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) y IEEE 802.1Qaz: Bandwidth Management y IEEE 802.1Aq: Shortest Path Bridging .

1p) y Send PAUSE frame on a per-user-priority basis y Loss sensitive protocols (Fibre Channel) to get a lossless lane Ethernet Enhancements supporting I/O consolidation. .IEEE 802.3x) and Prioritization (IEEE 802. Nuova Systems Inc.1Qbb: Priority Flow Control y Combined use of Flow Control (IEEE 802.

Nuova Systems Inc.1Qaz: BW Management y Re-allocate the unused bandwidth in one traffic class to another in need of more bandwidth y Allow for bursty LAN traffic while guaranteeing bandwidth for Fibre Channel traffic Ethernet Enhancements supporting I/O consolidation.IEEE 802. .


11 y IEEE 802.What is Wi-Fi? y Its not a protocol.11 defines a set of protocols that defines the physical and data link layers of Wireless LAN y We will not discuss MAC. but a set of standards that defines the compliance of devices to IEEE 802. flow control and error control here y They are covered via the Assignment . framing.

5 MHz (IEEE 802.9GHz) Infrared Wireless LAN Extremely Very Low Medium High Very Ultra Super Infrared Visible Ultra.11b.11n 5 GHz (IEEE 802.Unlicensed Frequency Bands Short-Wave Radio AM Broadcast Audio FM Broadcast Television Cellular (840MHz) NPCS (1.11n Source: Wireless Protocols. Todd Lammle .4±2.11a) IEEE 802.X-Rays Low Low High High High Light violet 2.4835 GHz 83.g) IEEE 802.

WLAN design goals y Easy to use and plug-and-play setup y Enables operation globally over wireless y Uses license-free ISM band of frequencies y Low power operation y Extend the use to cover battery operated devices y Easily inter-operate with the existing wired infrastructure protecting the committed investments y Support for mobility through roaming .

15 Bluetooth 10m.Wi-Fi in IEEE 802 Broadband Mobility IEEE 802. WPAN IEEE 802.16e WMAN IEEE 802. WLAN IEEE 802.11x Wi-Fi 100m. Source: Wireless Broadband Mobility.16 / ETSI HiperMAN WiMAX (256-FFT OFDM) 48+ km. Shawn Taylor .

WLAN terminology y Access Point (AP): Provides co-ordination of communication within a BSS and provides services to integrate with the Distribution System y Basic Service Set (BSS): One or more wireless nodes that share a single Access Point (co-ordination function) y Extended Service Set (ESS): One or more BSS s connected via Access Points .

WLAN Terminology (Cntd.) y Distribution System (DS): Network that interconnects several BSS s to form an ESS y Portal: Function that allows BSS to integrate with the non IEEE 802.11 network .

WLAN terminology illustrated 802.11 LAN BSS1 STA1 Access Point Portal STA5 BSS3 Access Point STA4 Portal Access Point Distribution System (DS) Portal STA2 BSS2 ESS STA3 .

11 LAN BSS1 STA1 Access Point STA5 BSS3 Access Point STA4 Wireless Access Point Distribution System (DS) Portal 802.Portal function 802.3 LAN STA2 BSS2 ESS STA3 .

Services offered by a DS Association. Re-association & de-association Distribution service and Integration service Source: CWAP Certified Wireless Analysis Professional Official Study Guide. Devin Akin and Jim Geier .

WLAN topologies y Infrastructure WLAN y A set of wireless nodes whose communication is coordinated via an access point y Ad-hoc WLAN y A set of wireless nodes that established communication between them without a central coordinator .

IEEE 802. 3 or 4 20 MHz or 40 MHz Modulation Technique OFDM DSSS or CCK RF-Band Number of Spatial Streams Channel Width 5 GHz 1 20 MHz 2.11g 802. 2.11 standards Criteria 802.11a 802.4 GHz or 5 GHz 1.4 GHz 1 20 MHz 600 Mbps DSSS or CCK or OFDM 2.11n Maximum Data Rate 54 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps DSSS or CCK or OFDM 2.11b 802.4 GHz 1 20 MHz .

11n to address the above requirements y Re-engineer the Physical layer y Enhance the MAC layer . Gaming & multimedia. Video. Mainly increase in the range y Need for more simplified and flexible WLAN deployments y y Features introduced in IEEE 802.IEEE 802. file serving etc.11n y Need for higher data rates & longer range y Increased adoption of bandwidth hungry LAN applications y Voice.

1n: Re-engineering PHY y Key technology .html .computerlanguage.IEEE y Option for the use of an increased frequency band y Use of dual-band antennas 40 MHz channel BW Source: http://www.

MIMO y Uses a technique called Spatial Multiplexing y Input data stream is split into multiple streams and fed into multiple transmit antennas y Each antenna transmit them in parallel y At the received parallel data streams are merged to reconstruct the original data stream .

IEEE 802.11n: Enhanced MAC layer y Block Acknowledgements y Send only one ACK for a number of frames y ACK overhead is minimized. hence the effective throughput y Frame Aggregation y Increases the Maximum Frame Size at the MAC layer Service Frames: 2304 Bytes -> 8 kB y Data Frames: 2304 Bytes -> 64 kB y Benefits especially voice and video traffic y .

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