FUELS, COMBUSTION AND FLAME

PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS:  Petroleum is the life line of modern civilization.  Petroleum is also called Black Gold.  The name Petroleum is derived from petra meaning rocks and oleum 

Origin of Petroleum 

It is a fossil fuel formed in nature by the decomposition of animal and plant matter which were buried under the earth millions of years ago.

Oil Producing Countries of the World 

The major producers of petroleum in the world are Russia, USA, Egypt, and Persian Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, etc.

Krishna and Godavari rivers.  Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam  Bombay High (Offshore area)  Deltas of Cauvery.Oil Production in INDIA  Places where oil is produced from the wells in India. .  Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat.

 When a well is grilled through the rocks natural gas comes out first with a great pressure and after some time the oil comes out by itself due to pressure. .Production of Petroleum  Petroleum is obtained by drilling holes (oil wells) into the earth¶s crust where the presence of oil has been predicted by survey.

Offshore petroleum well .

Refining of Petroleum Once the pressure is subsidized.  The process of separating petroleum into more useful fractions by fractional distillation is known as refining.  . the crude oil is pumped out of the oil well.

Fractional distillation of Petroleum .

4. 7. dry cleaning Motor Fuel. Furnace fuel. vaseline Paraffin wax Pitch and tar Petroleum coke Fractions Uses Gaseous fuel. grease. production of carbon black Solvent. 2. 6. water proofing fabrics Artificial asphalt Fuel. 8. 5. Fuel. 9. electrodes . 3. Gas Petroleum ether Gasoline Kerosene Gas oil and diesel oil Lubricating oils.FRACTION OF PETROLEUM AND THEIR USES S. Illuminant. fuel for diesel engines Lubrication Candles.No 1.

Chennai. Mathura. Barauni. Digboi Guwahati           Haldia Kochi Koyali and Visakhapatnam .Petroleum Refining in India Oil Refineries in India are at:at:Mumbai.

. Acetone. Toluene. D. Benzene. Ethylene.H.T.  Few important petrochemicals are:are: Methyl Alcohol. and B.C.D.Petrochemicals  The chemicals which are prepared from the fractions of petroleum are called petrochemicals. Ethyl Alcohol.

Petroleum Products .

grease and vaseline are used as lubricants.Uses of Petroleum  Petroleum products are used as fuels. etc. a product of petroleum.  Lubricating oils. is used for manufacturing candles.  Paraffin wax. polishes. waxed paper. . water proofing.

 .  Some nitrogen.  It is found in coal mines deep under the surface of earth. hydrogen and oxygen compounds. sulphur and phosphorus compounds are also present.COAL AND ITS PRODUCTS Coal is a complex mixture of carbon.

Due to high temperature and high pressure & in the absence of air. The chemical process of the conversion of wood into coal is called ³Carbonisation´.How Coal was formed?    Coal was formed by the decomposition of plants and trees buried under the surface of the earth long long ago. wood was converted into coal. .

Coal formation .

Different types of Coal Sl. Type of Coal Carbon content No (%) 60 1 Peat 70 2 Lignite (soft coal) 80 3 Bituminous (household coal) 90 4 Anthracite (hard coal) .

toluene.  Ammoniacal Liquor (solution of ammonia)  Coaltar. . naphthalene and anthracene.Products of Coal  Coal Gas. This.  Coke. The solid residue left behind after the dry distillation of coal is known as Coke. on further distillation gives benzene. xylene. phenol.

Used in the manufacture of synthetic petrol. Used as a source of organic compounds like benzene. phenol. Used in the manufacture of fuel gases like coal gas and water gas. Used to make coke which acts as a reducing agent in metallurgy. . aniline and anthracene.Uses of Coal      Used as domestic and industrial fuel. toluene.

 Wood. a lot of heat and light is produced. coal. domestic gas (LPG). .  During the process of burning the fuel. diesel and petrol fuels are used as fuels.FUELS  The material or the substance which is burnt to produce heat energy is known as ³Fuel´. kerosene.

Types of Fuels  Based on the physical status. SOLID FUELS  LIQUID FUELS  GASEOUS FUELS  . fuels are of three types.

. coal.  Solid fuels require much space for storage and leave smoke and ash on burning. coke. Charcoal. paraffin and tallow are some of the commonly used solid fuels.Solid Fuels  Wood.

fuel oil. benzene.  Petrol. kerosene. . diesel.Liquid Fuels  Most of the liquid fuels are obtained from petroleum.  They require less storage space than solid fuels and leave no solid residue when burnt. alcohol are some of the most commonly used liquid fuels.

Some important fuels are:  Natural Gas (CH )  Producer Gas (N + CO)  Water Gas (H + CO)  Coal Gas (CH + H + CO)  Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) .Gaseous Fuels  Gaseous fuels are mainly used in domestic as well as industrial purposes.

Should be easy to store.Characteristics of a good fuel       Should have a high calorific value. Should not produce any harmful products on burning. Should cause minimum pollution of air. . Should be cheap and readily available. transport and handle. Should have a low kindling temperature.

water and heat.COMBUSTION      Combustion is the process of burning of a substance generally in the presence of oxygen with the evolution of heat and light. methane burns in air forming carbon dioxide. Similarly. CH + 2O CO + 2H O + heat. For example charcoal burns in air to give carbon dioxide and heat. . C + O CO + heat.

combustible ³nonSubstances´. kerosene. diamond. Eg. glass. petrol. which burns easily are known as ³Combustible Substances´.Combustible and Non-combustible NonSubstances  Substances such as paper. Iron.. etc. wood.  Substances that do not burns easily are called ³non. straw. etc. .

 Presence of a supporter of combustion. .Conditions Necessary for Combustion The following three conditions are necessary for combustion:combustion: presence of a combustible substance.  Attainment of ignition or kindling temperature.

Simple representation of the combustion process .

 Spontaneous combustion.  Explosion. .Types of Combustion  Rapid Combustion.

it is known as ³Rapid Combustion´. .  The oxidation reaction in which a large amount of heat and light are produced in a short time is called ³Rapid Combustion´.Rapid Combustion  If a combustion reaction takes place with a high speed.

 Burning of white phosphorus in air is the best example of this type of combustion.Spontaneous Combustion A combustion in which no external heat is given is known as spontaneous combustion.  .

when a pressure is applied on the crackers by contact with a burning splinter.  Example. . light and sound are called ³Explosion´.Explosion  When a large amount of gases are evolved with the production of a tremendous amount of heat.

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