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Leadership is the process of inducing a subordinate to behave in a desired manner Leadership is one form of dominance, in which the followers more or less willingly accept direction and control by another person Leadership is the process of providing direction, energizing others and attaining their commitment to the leaders cause Warren Bennics gave the following characteristics of leadership
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Provide direction and meaning to the people they are leading Favor action and risk taking Generate trust Purveyor of hope

Unless you know where you are going. and why. even failure. .UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF LEADERSHIP GIVING VISION The leader has a clear idea of what he wants to do ² professionally and personally ² and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks. you cannot possibly get there.

The leader loves what he does and loves doing it. . combined with a very particular passion for a vocation. Without hope. much less progress. and a course of action.Passion The underlying passion for the passion of life. the leader who communicates passion gives hope and inspiration to other people. we cannot survive. a profession.

Integrity Know yourself is the key word. The leader never lies to himself. knows his flaws as well as his assets. and deals with them directly. . especially about himself.

and grown through that experience. .Maturity It is important for a leader to be mature. Then he can encourage others. never servile. observant. he is capable of learning to be dedicated. and always truthful. for he needs to have experience.

the leader cannot function. as it is a product of leadership. It is a quality that cannot be acquired.Trust It is not as much an ingredient of leadership. but it is earned. It is given by co-workers and followers. . and without it.

wants to learn as much as he can. He does not worry about failure. but embraces errors. knowing he will learn from them. and try new things. is willing to take risks.Curiosity and Daring The leader wonders about everything. . experiment.

through his communication skills. through his eloquence. .A Leader is like a Preacher He has the capacity to convince others. He ought to be one who is able to relate well with sincerity.

leaders are bigger.Nature of Leadership 1. and expressive is seen in the leader. Generally. 5. Leaders have unusual facility with language. 3. and knowledge. The most articulate. The leaders are fully aware of the importance of cooperation and strong commitment to group goals. Leaders are emotionally matured and have a powerful drive or initiative for achievement. Leaders are somewhat more intelligent than the average of their followers. healthier. and more physically attractive than the average group members. aptitude. . A leader has diversified interest. One possible reason is that if the leader is too much more intelligent than the other group members. 6. 4. 2. talkative. he will not be able to relate to others.

Leadership Style .

Autocratic Leadership (Authoritarian) Power is centralized and decision-making is assumed by the leader. More frustration and conflicts implementation of goals among members since they are not asked to share Leaders have high sense of opinions or decisions. Foster decision and a. Stifle membership drives and be put to use. The leader determines the policy of the group. Less competent members can b. have responsibilities low consideration to others b. since they creativity. Advantage: Disadvantage: a. loss of individuality simply follow orders among members .

peopleoriented.Democratic Leadership (Participative) Decentralized authority. Members tend to be e between followers. consults followers. Advantages: Disadvantages: a. Lack of discipline and own working partners limited control of the b. Leader asks members to express their ideas and to give suggestions. decisions are not one-sided or unilateral. Better understanding a. Encourages constructive leader suggestions and allows members to make choices . and the assertive and arrogant leaders can select their b.

making Disadvantages: Highly permissive that might lead to chaos and disunity Lack of unity among members. no guidance and supervision . More freedom and a. Followers play major role in decisionb. independence b.Laissez Faire/Free-Rein Leadership Avoid power and responsibilities Advantage: a.

Reprimand is given in the presence of others. . support.Types of Leadership Motivation 1. there are penalties and displayed authority. and reward for followers Negative type ² tendency to be domineering and superior with other people. Positive type ² emphasizes praises. 2.

Technical Skills ² refer to person·s knowledge and ability on any type of process of technique. 3. .Leadership Skills 1. abstract relationship. 2. Human Skill ² ability to work and interact effectively with people Conceptual Skill ² ability to comprehend fully in terms of models. and theoretical framework.

3. . 2. Identification of appointed Leader ² locates the person occupying leadership position. Observers· Rating Scale ² assessment of leaders based on behavioral dimensions. Peer Rating ² nominate individuals to be the leader and assess the performance and accomplishments from the point of view of the followers and group members.Measuring Leadership 1. Self Rating Inventory ² subjects are asked to evaluate their own leadership in the group. 4.

Differences between Leaders and Managers Leaders ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Managers ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Education Inductive Tentative Dynamic Understanding Ideas Broad Deep Experiential Active Questions Process Strategy Alternative Training Deductive Firm Static Memorizing Facts Narrow Surface Rote Passive Answers Content Tactics Goal .

Leaders ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Managers ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Exploration Discovery Active Initiative Whole brain Life Long-term Change Content Flexible Risk Synthesis Open imagination Prediction Dogma Reactive Direction Left brain Job Short-term Stability Form Rigid Rules Thesis Closed Common sense .

4. The leader as an Executive The leader as a Planner The leader as Policy The leader as Expert The leader as Controller of Internal Relations The leader as Surveyor of Rewards and Punishment . 2. 3.Functions of Leaders 1. 6. 5.

The leader as the Father Figure . The leader as Exemplar 9.7. The leader as Ideologist 12. The leader as Symbol of the Group 10. The leader as a Substitute 11. The leader as Arbitrator and Mediator 8.

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP ` ` ` ` ` Initiating ² task motivated or goal directed Regulating ² control rewards and punishment. receiving monitor communication reduces goal ambiguity Supporting ² gives mutual trust. ability to minimize conflict Information ² giving shows high-quality decisions. warm and affectionate. flexibility . coordinate activities Evaluating ² willingness to make changes.

indecisiveness. and pessimistic outlook Self-centeredness ² self-righteousness. detached. using extensive vocabulary and technical jargon Hostility ² demonstrates a contempt for leadership.INEFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP ` ` ` ` ` ` Indifference ² cool. habitually absent Conflicts ² unresolved. avoidance of responsibility Rejection ² refuses to accept ideas. narrow-minded Anxiety ² manifests emotional instability. hypercritical of group work .

. Formal rewards are pay increases or promotion. and recognition Coercive power is the opposite of reward power. attention.Sources of Leadership Power ` ` ` Legitimate power is the power that stems or comes from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it. Reward power stems from the leader·s authority to bestow reward on other people. Disposal rewards are praise. It refers to the leader·s authority to punish or recommend punishment.

` ` Expert power results from a leader·s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers. . Referent power comes from a leader·s personality characteristics that command subordinates· identification. and admiration so they wish to emulate the leader. respect.