WELCOME TO Rural Livelihood Systems

B.N. Hiremath Professor

‡ Who is B.N. Hiremath? ‡ What is this course all about? ‡ How do I prepare for the course?
± Study Groups, ± Notes, ± Other Reading

‡ How am I Evaluated?
± Quizzes, ± Exams, ± assignments (reading, written)

‡ Grading ‡ Attendance ‡ Others (Ancient Futures, etc.)

Understanding Livelihoods

Why all the Noise about SL? We¶re getting serious about poverty. What we have done in the past has not been too successful: a search for something more effective Initially: ³direct impact on the poor´ Later: a more analytical understanding of the complexity of poverty of the factors that affect poverty .

Defining Poverty Not just income / GDP but human development Not just the means to survive but the capability to thrive The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer TIP Think people. not national statistics .

assets. 1992) . and activities required for a means of living Have the ability to cope with stresses and shock And can maintain and enhance those capabilities and assets Without undermining the natural resource base TIP These are the characteristics of a µLivelihood¶ (Chambers & Conway. . Can sustain the capabilities. .Not being Poor Means that people .

like the threats and opportunities the poor face To build on their inherent potential . institutional .. we need .poor people lead complex lives To be dynamic .environmental. social.rather than what they have not got To consider macro-micro links . economic. To be more holistic ..If we put people at the centre of development.because people are affected by policies To mainstream sustainability .

..And in particular . We need to incorporate people¶s own definition of desirable outcomes Sounds Obvious ? But it s not what we ve been doing .

inputs & services ± often µproduction¶ orientated ± missed the poor: ± not targeted towards the poor / inappropriate to the needs of the poor ± captured by the wealthy ± could not be sustained Move to µcapacity-building¶ in sector organisations instead .What we did before (1)« Supply of technology.

on the whole.What we did before (2)« µOrganisational Development¶ ± Equipped people and organisations with the skills and resources to do a better job ± But. little has changed ± New skills are not used ± The new-look organisation is not financially viable ± Still tended to be µsector-specific¶ and supply-driven ± Because the µrules of the game¶ never really changed .

.So we now think about .. Policies and Institutions as well ± Creating the enabling environment for a better way of doing things by µchanging the rules of the game¶ .

The SL Framework (1) Is simply a tool to help: Plan new development initiatives Assess the contribution to livelihood sustainability made by existing activities It: Provides a checklist of issues Highlights what influences what Emphasises the multiple interactions that affect people¶s livelihoods .

The SL Framework (2) Helps us think holistically about: The things that the poor might be very vulnerable to The assets and resources that help them thrive and survive The policies and institutions that impact on their livelihoods How the poor respond to threats and opportunities What sort of outcomes the poor aspire to .

activities and capabilities Basic livelihoods conceptual framework .Overview Origins of the livelihoods approach Definitions Starting points Households and livelihoods Assets.

Origins of the Livelihoods Approach ‡ SL approach draws on aspects of: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Integrated Rural Development Planning during 1970s Food security initiatives during 1980s RRA and PRA Farming systems research Gender analysis Risk and vulnerability assessment Participatory poverty assessment Appreciative enquiry .

Whose Livelihoods? ‡ The concept of livelihoods and livelihoods analysis is closely associated with poverty reduction strategies ‡ The livelihoods of poor households are the central focus ‡ The framework is seldom used to directly examine the sustainability of the livelihoods of the affluent and how this impacts on the livelihoods of the poor .

Definitions of Livelihoods .

.. which. natural and economic systems. provides individuals with means to provide themselves with food.. whilst safeguarding resources and opportunities for future generations.LS Definitions The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) provides the following definition for sustainable livelihoods: ³The creation of conditions that are (self-supportive) of sustainable development in human.. shelter and an acceptable quality of life.´ .

economic. 1994) . "These capacities are contingent upon the availability and accessibility of options which are ecological. highlights the importance of empowering individuals. enhance their well-being. clothing and shelter.. ownership of resources and participatory decision making. and that of future generations.LS Definitions Contd« The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) defines sustainable livelihoods as being: ‡ ‡ ". "Sustainable livelihood creation basically translates into the creation of livelihoods that empower individuals to earn enough money to provide for basic amenities such as food.. Concerned with people's capacities to generate and maintain their means of living. socio-cultural. The more pragmatic definition below.³ ‡ Note: Extracted from IISD's "Adaptive strategies of the poor in arid and semi-arid lands: in search of sustainable livelihoods" (Singh and Titi. achieving independence and dignity in providing for their basic needs". and political and are predicated on equity. It also enables people to lead a life of dignity in a sustainable manner.

shelter and clothing). a definition of sustainable livelihoods should go beyond the basic requirements for living (food.LS Definitions Contd« However. . It is about achieving a quality of life that is embedded within the rich local cultures of many communities. The sustainability debate reminds us that this must be done within 'the means of nature'.

Jobs invariably do.. between an employer and employee. Livelihoods may or may not involve money.LS Definitions Contd« The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) differentiates between a job and a livelihood which are often used interchangeably.. is engagement in a number of activities which.. . Livelihoods are based on income derived from "jobs".. but does so only to complement other aspects of a livelihood portfolio. at times. It is also a formal agreement. .. comprise part of an overall livelihood.. on the other hand. neither require a formal agreement nor are limited to a particular trade. ³ Jobs ‡ "A job connotes one particular activity or trade that is performed in exchange for payment. Livelihoods ‡ "A livelihood. A job can.. . Livelihoods are self-directing. however. but also on incomes derived from assets and entitlements. "a means of living or of supporting life and meeting individual and community needs´ ‡ .. as manifested by a contract.

1992). IDS Discussion Paper 296. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future. R. Conway (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21 st century. 'A livelihood comprises the capabilities. R. Conway. Brighton: IDS. assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. and G. while not undermining the natural resource base' (Chambers. Adapted from Chambers. and G. .LS Definitions Contd« The definition used by the UK's Department of Foreign and International Development (DFID) incorporates these sentiments.

What is a Sustainable Livelihood?
‡ µA livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living¶ ‡ µHouseholds have sustainable livelihoods when they can cope with and recover from shocks and stresses and can maintain their capabilities and assets without undermining the natural resource base¶
Chambers & Conway and Carney D

What is a Sustainable Livelihood?
‡ µPeople¶s capacity to generate and maintain their means of living, enhance their well-being and that of future generations. These capacities are contingent on the availability and accessibility of options which are ecological, economic, political and which are predicated on equity, ownership of resources and participatory decision making¶
Titi,V and Singh N.

Defining Livelihoods
‡ Two broad approaches to defining livelihoods
± One has a narrower economic focus on production, employment and household income ± The other takes a more holistic view which unites concepts of economic development, reduced vulnerability, environmental sustainability while identifying and building on the strengths of the urban and rural poor

‡ We will work with the second approach

sociology. it is not surprising that we find it hard to see the unity that underlies the divisions´. And these divisions become so ingrained in our thinking that.Holistic Approach ³It is not nature which divides itself up into physics. the power of reductionism science aside. Checkland (1981) . it is we who have imposed these divisions on nature. etc. biology. economics. psychology.

ranging from the outer (material) to the inner (non-material) realities and from the tradition bound to more future oriented perspectives.LS Definitions Contd« Livelihood System: A multidimensional whole embracing all forces and constraints. This nine-fold focus is useful in the approach to and understanding of the rural livelihood systems from various angles. Ruedi Hogger (1994) Nine-Square Mandala: Is a practical heuristic tool to view the livelihood system in a multidimensional way that is more holistic. . material and non-material in nature that determines a family's existence.

and reducing risk . human and social resources and coping strategies that people have developed.Starting Points ‡ People are the starting point of development ‡ Households are the primary unit of analysis ‡ Analyse people¶s livelihoods and how they have changed over time ‡ Assess the range of factors in external environment which impact positively or negatively on people¶s livelihoods ‡ Strengthen household livelihood security by building on the material assets.

The SL Framework: Where are the Poor? H Vulnerabilit y Context Shocks Seasonality Trends Changes S N Policies influence Institutions Processes Livelihood Strategies Livelihood Outcomes P F .

social assets and entitlements Households come in different shapes and sizes Households depend on multiple livelihoods strategies Households carry out different livelihood activities Household have varying capabilities .Core concepts Household draw on assets of different types Material assets.

Inside the household ‡ Households come in different shapes and sizes ± Extended. single headed etc ‡ Households are stratified ± Some households have greater access to assets. intergenerational. more capabilities ± more power ± Livelihood strategies of some may undermine livelihoods of others ‡ Internally differentiated ± Gender divisions of labour and power result in unequal access to household resources and related decision making ± Households operate in a vulnerability context ± A range of factors determine exposure to hazards and risk . more diversified livelihood activities.

The image cannot be displayed. and then open the file again. or the image may have been corrupted. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Restart your computer. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. If the red x still appears. Assets Human and social resources Institutional and political resources Financial and economic resources Physical resources Natural ecological resources .

± A range of different productive activities ± Activities where household members contribute community processes . domestic tasks of many different types.Household activities ‡ Household activities fall into three types differentiated by gender and age ± Activities that maintain and reproduce the household ± childcare.

or the image may have been corrupted. If the red x still appears. Buying and selling Local construction/ self build Taxi. transport Formal employment Casual work Grey economy .Productive Activities Natural resource use Livestock Homestead production and crops The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Restart your computer. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. and then open the file again.

Capabilities Health Agricultural skills Homestead skills Labour Entrepreneurial skills Literacy. education Environmental knowledge Technical skills .

Household livelihoods in context .

Expanding the asset base Human Capital Social Capital Natural Capital Enhancing the sustainability of all 5 assets Physical Capital Financial Capital .

An Alternative Sustainable Livelihoods Framework .

age. ethnic group.Key issues in the SL framework ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Poor not central enough ± easily ³lost´ from vision Key ³processes´ ± gender. class/caste ± not explicitly highlighted ³Tradeability´ of livelihood assets not indicated Linkages between different elements not sufficiently highlighted Too sequential ± left-to-right Aspirations and opportunities missing Little assistance in dealing practically with ³PIP box´ .

and ability (the poorest are often found among the physically or mentally less able. class or caste. or among those suffering from chronic illnesses) . ‡ Key processes include gender. This emphasises the importance of thorough stakeholder analysis as a starting point for SL analysis. ethnic group.‡ Placing the poor firmly at the ³centre´ ‡ Identifying key ³processes´ that define who ³ the poor´ are and how they relate to everything else in the framework. age.

Focusing on the Poor The Poor .

Human 4. Social 1.Physical . Natural 2. Financial The Poor 3. Personal 5.Livelihood Assets 6.

Human Assets ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Health Nutrition Education Knowledge and skills (including traditional or indigenous knowledge) ‡ Capacity to work .1.

‡ secure shelter & buildings ‡ water supply & sanitation ‡ energy ‡ communications . etc. vehicles.2.roads. Physical Assets Infrastructure ‡ transport .

Physical Assets contd« Tools and technology ‡ Tools and equipment for production ‡ Seed. fertiliser. pesticides ‡ Traditional technology .

Natural Assets ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Land and produce Water & aquatic resources Trees and forest products Wildlife Wild foods & fibres Biodiversity Environmental services .3.

informal Remittances Pensions Wages . Financial Assets ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Savings Credit/debt .formal.4.

Social Assets y y y y Networks Membership of groups Relationships of trust Access to wider institutions of society upon which people draw in pursuit of livelihoods.5. .

and will. ³Personal´ assets Includes: People¶s perceptions of themselves Motivations Self-esteem Self-confidence Emotional well-being Spritiual dimensions People¶s capacity. in the form of mechanisms of representation and political action).6. . to assert themselves and claim their rights (linking with social assets.

etc.The Asset Mix Different households have different access to livelihood ³assets´ Livelihoods affected by: ‡ Diversity of assets ‡ amount of assets ‡ balance between assets Livelihood assets are ³tradable´ and exchangeable ± natural assets can be converted into financial assets. . social assets can help to support personal assets. strong human assets can contribute to stronger social assets.

Unpacking Policies and Institutions Enabling Agencies (Policy Makers) Social Service providers Personal Human Financial The Poor Physical Natural .

how does the policy process reflect the interests of users. what are the interests involved. what mechanisms are there for accountability. how decentralised are decision and policy-making processes . how much do users participate in determining the types of services that are made available to them ‡ How do enabling agencies and clients or users interact ± is there representation.This ³hub´model encourages us to ask questions about the relationships between the key actors: ‡ How do enabling agencies (policy makers) interact with service providers ± is the relationship a contract . what measurement and supervision is there. is there accountability and transparency. do clients have access to legal redress. how do resources flow and who makes decisions about them ‡ How do service providers relate to their ³clients´ or users. including the poor ± is there any contract involved. does knowledge and information about the poor and the conditions they face get to policy makers. what are the incentives governing this relationship enabling agencies.

Unpacking ´Processesµ Enabling agencies Service providers Personal Social Human Financial The Poor Physical Natural .

who sets the rules. caste/class. age.Key processes and power relations (gender. ethnic group) ‡ Introducing other key ³processes´ and more ³normative´. How is the private sector articulated. what rules govern it. service providers and users (and the poor as users) ‡ Highlighting importance of markets ± most service providers are usually provate sector. how are they enforced . less ³tangible´ institutions ‡ ³Mediators´ of relations between enabling agencies.

Specifically recognising ³politics´ ± representation. who checks on these. power relations. ethnic group) Culture is liable to play a critical role in defining the ³rules of the game´ ± attitudes to legal process. Emphasising ³enabling´ (or ³hindering´) role of policy . caste/class. to what extent are ³universal human rights´ recognised or underwritten. the roles of gender/age/class/ethnic group/ability in affecting people¶s access to services and to the policy process and the social ³norms´ or customs that are common throughout society or for particular groups within society Rights ± what rights are recognised. service providers and users. and political processes that influence strongly the relations between enabling agencies. money.Key processes and power relations (gender. property. the distribution of power. rights. age.

state/district/local level Focussing on relationships between agencies (not just structures and functions) Incorporates the idea of ³governance´ ± a political concept. implementation.Unpacking the ³Policies. Institutions and Processes (PIP) box´ into ³Practical´ Elements Incorporating ³enabling agencies´ ± macro. involving setting the rules for the exercise of power and resolving conflicts over those rules . national/state level ³service delivery agencies´ ± meso. policy.

An Envelope of Action Enabling agencies Service providers Personal Social Human Financial The Poor Physical Natural .

The interaction of these elements defines an ³envelope of opportunity´ for the poor The action of enabling agencies and service providers can help to make that envelope bigger or smaller The influence of markets. culture and rights also of central importance These are all areas that can be addressed ± some are more difficult than others . politics.

Strong Envelope ² People Less Vunerable Enabling agencies Service providers Personal Social Human Financial The Poor Physical Natural .

Weak Envelope ² People More Vulnerable Enabling agencies Personal Social The Poor Financial Natural Service providers Human Physical .

which you can·t do anything about ² can be kept at bay or people can be helped to deal with them better Vulnerability is all-embracing ² effecting everything inside it: the poor the assets they use the agencies they deal with their relationships between those agencies and the poor the ways that processes influence those relationships . vulnerability factors .If this envelope is strong and the relationships within it work well.

cyclones ± Deaths in the family ± Violence or civil unrest ‡ Seasonality ‡ Trends and changes ± Population ± Environmental change ± Technology ± Global markets and trade .The ´Vulnerabilityµ Context ‡ Shocks ± Floods. droughts.

Enabling agencies Service providers Personal Social Financial The Poor Natural Human Physical .

gender/age/class/ethnic issues ² that will help make it more culture specific Still not a magic bullet! . social norms.Uses A guide for people in the analysis of development practice and issues Encourages discussion and probing Not necessarily easier to explain but more complete Specifically identifies many features ² politics. rules.

Advantages ‡Addresses some of the ´grey areasµ identified regarding SL Places the poor firmly at the centre ² makes people visible Suggests the importance of clear definition of who is at the centre of the analysis Unpacks the PIP box ² more specific regarding key institutions and processes ² and provides a more practical approach to analysing institutional and policy issues Incorporates political dimension more explicitly Helps understand entry points ² based on opportunities and aspirations. possible at different levels (identifying them still depends on good analysis) .

LS Definition Livelihood System: A multidimensional whole embracing all forces and constraints. material (outer realities) and non-material (inner realities) in nature that determines a family's existence. Ruedi Hogger (1994) .







µUniversal Model¶: Completeness and Inner Coherence of the Universe 4 3 8 9 5 1 2 7 6 .

The RLS Mandala: Is a practical heuristic tool to view the livelihood system in a multidimensional way that is more holistic. This nine-fold focus is useful in the approach to and understanding of the rural livelihood systems from various angles. ranging from the outer (material) to the inner (nonmaterial) realities and from the tradition bound to more future oriented perspectives. .

Inner Human Space Integrity. Emotional Base Memories Attachments Feelings. Family Orientation Ancestors Caste.RLS MANDALA 9. Experience Agricultural patterns Traditional knowledge Labour. Anxieties Boredom. family planning Work distribution Solidarity 2. services Modern professions 7. Knowledge-Activity Base Technical skills. Selfishness compassion People orientation Curiosity. jobs Aspirations to power. Family Space Gender relations Nutrition distribution Health. Collective Orientation Subsistence agriculture Food security Religion. Individual Orientation Visions. tradition.population-trees Distribution of wealth Accumulation of wealth . Socio-economic Space Production relations Patterns of cooperation Community organisations Factor and goods markets Intermediation processes Physical Base Natural habitat Natural resource base Animals. crafts. identity Awareness. values State laws. Common property resources World views. courage 3. social mobility 5. wealth. social status Aspirations to education. leadership. ideology 4. Idealism 8. Hopes Aspirations Fears Self-image ³Gurus´ models 6.