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January 24, 2011 Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Florida Institute of Technology D. R. Kirk

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Reading: Introduction to Flight, 6th Edition, by John D. Anderson, Jr. For this weeks lecture: Chapter 4, Sections 4.1 - 4.9 For next weeks lecture: Chapter 4, Sections 4.10 - 4.21, 4.27 Lecture-Based Homework Assignment: Problems: 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.8, 4.11, 4.15, 4.16 DUE: Wednesday, February 2, 2011 by 11am Turn in hard copy of homework Also be sure to review and be familiar with textbook examples in Chapter 4 Laboratory Homework #2 (assigned this week) will be due Friday, February 4, 2011 by 11 AM

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4.1: V2 = 1.25 ft/s 4.2: p2-p1 = 22.7 lb/ft2 4.4: V1 = 67 ft/s (or 46 MPH) 4.5: V2 = 102.22 m/s Note: it takes a pressure difference of only 0.02 atm to produce such a high velocity 4.6: V2 = 216.8 ft/s 4.8: Te = 155 K and e = 2.26 kg/m3 Note: you can also verify using equation of state 4.11: Ae = 0.0061 ft2 (or 0.88 in2) 4.15: M = 0.847 4.16: V = 2,283 MPH Notes: Include a brief comment on your answer, especially if different than above If you have any questions come to office hours or consult GSAs

Session #1: Machine Shop Session (2 of 6) Report directly to machine shop for your session Make sure you are on time to laboratory Do not wear open-toe shoes or sandals Avoid wearing loose clothing, jewelry, etc. Safety glasses are provided Detailed training guide is online Session #2: MATLAB Lecture (2 of 3) Add a 4th lecture on MATLAB toward end of semester

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Review: Introduction to Flight by Anderson Chapter 2: 2.1-2.7 Chapter 3: 3.1-3.5 Be sure that you are familiar with example problems

Streamline (2.1) Set of points that form a line that is everywhere tangent to local velocity vector No flow across streamlines For a steady flow, moving fluid element traces out a fixed path in space Stream tube A set of streamlines that intersect a closed loop in space Steady Flow: A flow that does not fluctuate with time (all flows in MAE 1202) Unsteady Flow: A flow that varies with time Equation of State for a Perfect Gas (2.3), applies at a point Ideal Gas Law: p = RT or pv = RT (v = 1/) R universal = 8,314 J/kg mole K R for air = 8,314 / 28.96 = 287 J/kg K (or 1,716 ft lb / slug R) If you do not remember these concepts review Section 2.1-2.3

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Streamlines

Stagnation Point

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http://www.aerolab.com/water.html

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Viscous: Flows with friction All real flows are viscous Inviscid flow is a useful idealization By neglecting friction analysis of flow is usually much easier! Inviscid: Flows with no friction

Flow very close to surface of airfoil is Influenced by friction and is viscous (boundary layer flow) Stall (separation) is a viscous phenomena Flow away from airfoil is not influenced by friction and is wholly inviscid

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Two types of viscous flows Laminar: streamlines are smooth and regular and a fluid element moves smoothly along a streamline Turbulent: streamlines break up and fluid elements move in a random, irregular, and chaotic fashion

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Key to understanding: Friction causes flow separation within boundary layer 1. Boundary layers are either laminar or turbulent 2. All laminar B.L. turbulent B.L. 3. Turbulent B.L. fuller or fatter than laminar B.L., more resistant to separation Separation creates another form of drag called pressure drag due to separation Dramatic loss of lift and increase in drag

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Compressible: Density of fluid elements may change from point to point All real flows are compressible Important for gases (rarely important for liquids) Most important at high speeds Incompressible: Density of fluid elements is always constant

General Rule of Thumb: If flow speed is less than about 100 m/s (or less than 225 MPH) flow can be considered incompressible or If flow is less than Mach 0.3, flow can be considered incompressible Mach number, M: ratio of local velocity to local speed of sound, V/a

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Photograph of a T-38 at Mach 1.1, altitude 13,700 feet, taken at NASA Wallops in 1993. Schlieren photography (from German word for "streaks") allows visualization of density changes, and therefore shock waves, in fluid flow Schlieren techniques have been used for decades in laboratory wind tunnels to visualize supersonic flow about model aircraft, but not full scale aircraft until recently. Dr. Leonard Weinstein of NASA Langley Research Center developed first Schlieren camera, which he calls SAF (Schlieren for Aircraft in Flight), that can photograph shock waves of a full sized aircraft in flight. He successfully took a picture which clearly shows shock waves about a T-38 aircraft on December 13, 1993 at Wallops Island, MD.

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Streamline Stream tube Steady flow Unsteady flow Viscid flow Inviscid flow Compressible flow Incompressible flow Laminar flow Turbulent flow

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BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Introduction to Flight by Anderson Chapter 4: 4.1-4.9 This chapter is going to be a challenge to you. There are lots of new concepts, ideas, and ways of looking at things. Expect it to be different, and go at it with enthusiasm. Be sure that you are familiar with example problems

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Study of aerodynamics is important to determine forces and moments (torques) acting on flying vehicles Forces and moments are caused as a result of interaction between a body (airplane, rocket, etc.) and air surrounding it Interaction depends on flow conditions (fluid properties, relative velocity, pressure, temperature, etc.) and body shape (geometry)

GOALS: Develop foundation of theoretical development (mathematical) Gain insight into physical phenomena taking place

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3 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

1. Mass is neither created nor destroyed (mass is conserved) Conservation of Mass Often also called: Continuity 1. Sum of Forces = Time Rate Change of Momentum (Newtons 2nd Law) Often reduces to: Sum of Forces = Mass x Acceleration (F = ma) Momentum Equation Bernoullis Equation, Euler Equation, Navier-Stokes Equation 1. Energy neither created nor destroyed (energy is conserved) Can only change physical form Energy Equation (1st Law of Thermodynamics)

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Incompressible flow of fluid along a streamline or in a stream tube of varying area Most important variables: p and V T and are constants throughout flow

A1V1 = A2V2

continuity

1 1 2 p1 + V1 = p2 + V22 2 2

Bernoulli

Compressible, isentropic (adiabatic and frictionless) flow along a streamline or in a stream tube of varying area T, p, , and V are all variables

1 A1V1 = 2 A2V2

p1 1 T1 ( 1) = = p2 2 T2 1 2 1 2 c pT1 + V1 = c pT2 + V2 2 2 p1 = 1 RT1 p2 = 2 RT2

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Wind Tunnels Air Speed Supersonic Flow

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Physical Principle: Mass can be neither created nor destroyed

Funnel wall A1 V1

Stream tube A2

V2

As long as flow is steady, mass that flows through cross section at point 1 (at entrance) must be same as mass that flows through point 2 (at exit) Flow cannot enter or leave any other way (definition of a stream tube) Also applies to solid surfaces, pipe, funnel, wind tunnels, airplane engine What goes in one side must come out the other side

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Stream tube

A1: cross-sectional area of stream tube at 1 V1: flow velocity Normal (perpendicular) to A1 Consider all fluid elements in plane A1 During time dt, elements have moved V1dt and swept out volume A1V1dt Mass of fluid swept through A1 during dt: dm=1(A1V1dt)

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SIMPLE EXAMPLE

Given air flow through converging nozzle, what is exit area, A2?

p1=1.2x105 N/m2 T1=330 K V1=10 m/s A1= 5m2 p2=? T2=? V2=30 m/s A2=?

IF flow speed < 100 m/s assume flow is incompressible (1=2) m1 = m2 = 1 A1V1 = 2 A2V2

A1V1 = A2V2 V1 10 5 A2 = A1 = 5 = = 1.67 m 2 V2 30 3 Conservation of mass could also give velocity, V2, if A2 was known Conservation of mass tells us nothing about p , T , etc.

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Relation between pressure and velocity Differences in pressure from one point to another in a flow create forces Physical Principle: Newtons Second Law Notes on pressure: Always acts inward Pressure varies from point to point in a flow How to apply F = ma for air flows?

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y z V x

Consider a small fluid element moving along a streamline Element is moving in x-direction

dy dz dx

What are forces on this element? 1. Pressure (force x area) acting in normal direction on all six faces 2. Frictional shear acting tangentially on all six faces (neglect) 3. Gravity acting on mass inside element (neglect)

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y x z p (N/m2) dy dz dx Area of left face: dydz Force on left face: p(dydz) Note that P(dydz) = N/m2(m2)=N Forces is in positive x-direction

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y x z p (N/m2) p+(dp/dx)dx (N/m2) dz dx

Area of left face: dydz Force on left face: p(dydz) Forces is in positive x-direction Change in pressure per length: dp/dx Change in pressure along dx is (dp/dx)dx Force on right face: [p+(dp/dx)dx](dydz) Forces acts in negative x-direction

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Pressure varies from point to point in a flow There is a change in pressure per unit length, dp/dx

dy

y x p (N/m2) z p+(dp/dx)dx (N/m2) dz dx

Net Force is sum of left and right sides Net Force on element due to pressure

dy

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Now put this into F=ma First, identify the mass of the element

dV a= dt dx V= dt dV dx dV dx dV a= = = V dt dx dx dt dx

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Eulers Equation (Differential Equation) Relates changes in momentum to changes in force (momentum equation) Relates a change in pressure (dp) to a chance in velocity (dV) Assumptions we made: Neglected friction (inviscid flow) Neglected gravity Assumed that flow is steady 30

Notice that dp and dV are of opposite sign: dp = -VdV IF dp increases Increased pressure on right side of element relative to left side dV goes down, flow slows down IF dp decreases Decreased pressure on right side of element relative to left side dV goes up, flow speeds up Eulers Equation is true for Incompressible and Compressible flows

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NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

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Relate p1 and V1 at point 1 to p2 and V2 at point 2 Integrate Eulers equation from point 1 to point 2 taking = constant

dp + VdV = 0

p2

p1

dp + VdV = 0

V1

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V2

V22 V12 p2 p1 + 2 2 =0

BERNOULLIS EQUATION

One of most fundamental and useful equations in aerospace engineering! Remember: Bernoullis equation holds only for inviscid (frictionless) and incompressible ( = constant) flows Bernoullis equation relates properties between different points along a streamline For a compressible flow, Eulers equation must be used ( is variable) Both Eulers and Bernoullis equations are expressions of F = ma expressed in a useful form for fluid flows and aerodynamics

2 2

2 1

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YES NO

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SIMPLE EXAMPLE

Given air flow through converging nozzle, what is the exit pressure, p2?

p1=1.2x105 N/m2 T1=330 K V1=10 m/s A1= 5m2 p2=? T2=? V2=30 m/s A2=?

Since flow speed < 100 m/s assume flow is incompressible (1=2)

p1 1.2 x105 kg 1 = = = 1.27 3 RT1 ( 287 )( 330 ) m p2 = p1 + 1 1 N V12 V22 = 1.2 x10 5 + (1.27 ) 10 2 30 2 = 1.195 x105 2 2 2 m

Since the velocity is increasing along the flow, it is an accelerating flow Notice that even with a 3-fold increase in velocity the pressure decreases by only about 0.8 %, which is characteristic of low velocity flow 36

Steady, incompressible flow of an inviscid (frictionless) fluid along a streamline or in a stream tube of varying area Most important variables: p and V T and are constants throughout flow

A1V1 = A2V2

continuity

1 1 2 p1 + V1 = p2 + V22 2 2

Bernoulli

What if flow is high speed? What if there are temperature effects? How does the density change?

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