CMMI Introduction

CMMI V1.2

Induction – Sep 2007

May 2007
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Contents History Structure of CMMISM Staged Representation Continuous Representation

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History of CMMI

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Looking Back….
US Department of Defense set up the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in the 1984 An R & D organization only; custodian on behalf of the software community for the Capability Maturity Models Charter is to be the leader in advancing the state of the practice of software engineering to improve the quality of systems that depend on software Is not a “Certification” body

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History of CMMs
CMM for Software V1.1 (1993) INCOS SECAM (1996) Systems Engineering CMM V1.1 (1995)

Software CMM V2, draft C (1997)

EIA 731 SECM (1998)

Integrated Product Development CMM (1997)

V1.02 (2001) V1.1 (2002) CMMI for Development V1.2 (2006)

CMMI for Acquisition V1.2 (2007)

CMMI for Services V1.2 (2007)

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CMMI

•Process Improvement Maturity Model for development of products and services •Best Practices that address development and maintenance activities •Integrates bodies of knowledge essential for development and maintenance like software, systems & design, and acquisition •CMMI can be considered as a collection of “practices” that are necessary to achieve high maturity and capability •These have been structured and organized into Process Areas •CMMI Dev V1.2: Continuation and update of CMMI V1.1
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Structure of CMMI Development

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The CMMI Dev Document
Composed of Three Parts Part 1 (About CMMI for development)  Introduction  Process Area components  Tying it all together  Relationship among Process Areas  Using CMMI Models Part 2 (Generic Goals, Generic Practices and Process Areas)  23 sections  1 section for generic practices  22 sections each representing one of the PAs of CMMI Dev
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The CMMI Dev Document
Part 3 (Appendices and Glossary)  Appendix A - References  Appendix B - Acronyms  Appendix C – CMMI for Dev Project participants  Glossary There are two representations of the Model:  Staged  Continuous

The CMMI Development document is 573 pages Source: CMU/SEI-2006-TR-008 Can be downloaded in .pdf or .doc format from SEI website
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Staged Representation

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Maturity Levels
Improvement institutionalized Continuously improving proces s Predictable process Optimizing (5)

Quantitatively Managed (4)

Quantitative control

Standard, consistent process Managed (2) Initial (1) © Software Engineering Institute

Defined (3)

Technical practices are integrated with management practices and institutionalized

Disciplined process

Project Management practices are institutionalized

Process in informal and adhoc

“.. is a well-defined evolutionary plateau on the path to becoming a mature organization” A higher maturity level includes all lower maturity levels Protection notice / Copyright notice
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Process Capability and the Prediction of Performance
Three results of increasing maturity Difference between targeted results and actual results decreases across projects Variability of actual results around targeted results decreases Targeted results improve
Probability

© Software Engineering Institute
5
Target N-z

Performance continuously improves in Level 5 organizations

Time /$/... Probability
Target N-y

4

Based on quantitative understanding of process and product, performance continues to improve in Level 4 organizations

Probability

Time/$/...

3

Target N-x

With well-defined processes, performance improves in Level 3 organizations

Time/$/... Probability

2

Target N+a

Plans based on past performance are more realistic in Level 2 organizations

Time/$/... Probability

Target N

1

Schedule and cost targets are typically overrun by Level 1 organizations.

Time/$/...

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Staged Approach
Proven sequence of typical areas to focus on for improvement Permits comparison across organizations assessment results can be summarized into a single rating

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Model Structure – Staged V1.2

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Process Area - Concept
A Process Area (PA) is a cluster of related practices A set of practices need to be performed to satisfy goals of a process area In the staged representation, a process area resides at a specific maturity level

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The Process Areas
5 4 3 2
Organizational Causal Analysis & Resolution Innovation & Deployment

5 4 3 2

Organizational Quantitative Project Management Process Performance

Validation Organizational Training Verification Risk Management Organizational Process Definition Product Integration Integrated Project Management Decision Analysis & Resolution + IPPD Technical Solution + IPPD Organizational Process Focus Requirements Development Supplier Agreement Management Requirements Management Monitoring and Control Project Project Planning Engineering
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Configuration Management Process & Product QA Measurement & Analysis Support

Project Management
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Process Management

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Goal - Concept
A Goal is a high-level outcome to be achieved by effective implementation of practices There are two kinds of goals in each PA Specific goals Generic goals The concept of Goals is:  all “institutionalization” related practices have been combined into “Generic Goals” If “institutionalization” has taken place, “Generic Goals” are satisfied There are one to three “Specific Goals” per Process Area There is one “Generic Goal” (related to institutionalization) per Process Area
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Practice - Concept
A Practice is an action to be performed in order to achieve the goals of a Process Area CMMISM contains 2 types of practices: Specific practices these differ across Process Areas Generic practices these are common across all Process Areas

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Generic Practices
Generic Practices support the Generic Goal of each PA For a Generic Goal, the Generic Practices are the same

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Discussion
Discussion on Process Area Participants to be taken through a Process Area like Configuration Management or Coding Discussion on: - Some Specific Practices for the PA - Example of direct and indirect evidences - Implementation level concepts - Generic Practices for the PA – e.g. policy, resources, training, stakeholders, levels of control, corrective actions, adherence to process, etc - Institutionalization of the PA

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Continuous Representation

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Continuous View of PAs

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Engineering

Requirements Management Validation Verification Product Integration Technical Solution Requirements Development

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Project Management

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Supplier Agreement Management Project Monitoring and Control Project Planning Risk Management Integrated Project Management + IPPD Quantitative Project Management

Process Management Support
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Organizational Training Organizational Process Definition + IPPD Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Performance Organizational Innovation & Deployment

Configuration Management Process & Product QA Measurement & Analysis Decision Analysis & Resolution Causal Analysis & Resolution

Capability Levels
 A capability level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the organization’s capability relative to a process area. There are six capability levels. For capability levels 1-5, there is an associated generic goal. Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement. Thus, capability levels are cumulative, i.e., a higher capability level includes the attributes of the lower levels.
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   

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The Capability Levels
5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed 3 Defined 2 Managed 1 Performed 0 Incomplete

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Capability Levels
5-Optimizing 4-Quantitatively Managed 3-Defined 2-Managed 1-Performed 0-Incomplete

CL/ PA
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RM
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RD

TS

PI

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VER

VAL

Continuous Approach
Allows selection of process areas to focus on for process improvement - based on those areas that impact organization’s business objectives and risks Does not allow easy comparison across organizations - however capability levels of individual PAs can be compared

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Quiz
Q1 Level 5 Process Area focuses on: b) Process Improvement c) Measurement and analysis d) Planning and Tracking Q2 CMMI requires that the processes are:  Defined in the QMS  Defined and practiced in a project  Defined and practiced in most of the projects Q3 Organizational Innovation and deployment fulfils one of the requirements of which Maturity Level:  Level 2  Level 5  Level 4
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Recap…
History Structure of CMMISM Staged Representation Continuous Representation

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Any Questions?

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Thank You

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