Art History Review

From Justinian to Gothic

Key Terms
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Squinch – a small single arch or series of concentric corbeled arches; used for transitioning to a dome Codex – the ancestor of the modern book Vellum – parchment sheets made from calfskin Cloisonné- a multi-colored surface made by pouring enamels into compartments outlined by bent wire fillets or strips Interlace – a form of decoration composed of strips or ribbons that are intertwined, usually symmetrically about a longitudinal axis Terracological – of or pertaining to animals (often fantastical- not real- animals) Illuminated manuscripts – hand-decorated pages of text Anthropomorphism – imagery of God Reliquary – a container for relics

Key Terms
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Radiating chapels – chapels that protrude from the main apse; part of control of traffic. Compartmentalization – each piece is clearly identified; does not flow together smoothly Topology - The study of geometric properties and spatial relations Tympanum – a lunette over the doorway of a church, often decorated with sculpture Archivolt – the ornamental band or molding surrounding the tympanum Rosette – the circular stylization of a rose Trumeau – a central post supporting the lintel in a double doorway Module – a unit of measurement Colonettes – bundles of columns (some engaged)

Hagia Sophia
WHO: Anthemius and Isidoros
(Commissioned by Justinian)

WHAT: Brick, basketweave

capitals, monolithic columns

WHERE: Constantinople WHEN: 537 (Justinian) HOW: Screen walls, pendentives
and squinches

SIZE:

Four minarets were added later by Turkish invaders when they turned it into a mosque. Screen walls – non-supporting walls which usually have large expanses of windows or other openings

Hagia Sophia
WHO: Anthemius and Isidoros
(Commissioned by Justinian)

WHAT: Brick, basketweave

capitals, monolithic columns

WHERE: Constantinople WHEN: 537 (Justinian) HOW: Screen walls, pendentives
and squinches

SIZE:

Four minarets were added later by Turkish invaders when they turned it into a mosque. Screen walls – non-supporting walls which usually have large expanses of windows or other openings

Pendentives and squinches
pendentive squinch

To make a transition from a rectangular base to a spherical dome, architects employed pendentives and squinches.

Joseph and Potiphar's wife from the Vienna Genesis
WHO: --WHAT: Illuminated manuscript WHERE: Vienna WHEN: Early 6th century HOW: --SIZE: ---

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Sutton Hoo Purse Cover
WHO: --WHAT: gold with garnets and
cloisonné originally on ivory and bone

WHERE: England WHEN: 630 HOW: cloisonné SIZE: 8”

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Axe from Jutland
WHO: --WHAT: Silver inlay and gold WHERE: Denmark WHEN: 950-975 (Late Viking) HOW: --SIZE: 6 7/8”

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Animal-Head Post
WHO: --WHAT: Hardwood- carved WHERE: Oseberg, Norway WHEN: 800-850 HOW: Placed on boat front SIZE: 60cm (24 5/8”)

Used to scare people being pillaged.

Lion Symbol Page from the Book of Durrow
WHO: --WHAT: Illuminated Manuscript
on vellum

WHERE: Dublin (either from
Ireland or Northumbria in England)

WHEN: 650-700 HOW: --SIZE: 10x6”
Represents St. John the Evangelist. Later his symbol was changed to an eagle.

Book of Kells
WHO: --WHAT: Illuminated Manuscript WHERE: Dublin (probably from Kells, Ireland) WHEN: late 8th early 9th centuries HOW: --SIZE: 9.5x13”
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Book of Kells
WHO: --WHAT: Illuminated Manuscript WHERE: Dublin (probably from Kells, Ireland) WHEN: late 8th early 9th centuries HOW: --SIZE: 9.5x13”
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Charlemagne’s Palace Chapel
WHO: Odo of Metz WHAT: Justinian Cathedral WHERE: Aachen WHEN: 792-805 HOW: Combination of Justinian SIZE: ---

central plan with the symmetry and order of Roman buildings

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Charlemagne’s Palace Chapel
WHO: Odo of Metz WHAT: --WHERE: Aachen WHEN: 792-805 HOW: Combination of Justinian SIZE: ---

central plan with the symmetry and order of Roman buildings

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Floor Plans, etc.

Comparison to San Vitale

Reims School from the Utrecht Psalter
WHO: --WHAT: illustration to Psalm 88 WHERE: Utrecht WHEN: 825-850 HOW: --SIZE: 13x10”

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Bronze Doors of St. Michael’s
WHO: Commissioned by Bernward WHAT: bronze WHERE: Hildesheim WHEN: 1015 (Ottonian) HOW: --SIZE: 16’6”

Compare style to that of the illustrations from the Utrecht Psalter. Narrative! “Adam and Eve Reproached” is a popular frame.

Reliquary of Sainte-Foy
WHO: --WHAT: Gold with gemstones
over a wooden core (face of a late Roman emperor)

WHERE: Conques WHEN: late 10th-11th century HOW: --SIZE: 33.5”

The gemstones were added over time by wealthy people who made pilgrimages to see it.

Sainte-Foy, Conques
WHO: --WHAT: Romanesque
Cathedral

WHERE: Auvergne, France WHEN: 1050-1120 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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Sainte-Foy continued

South Porch of Sainte-Pierre
WHO: Founded by King Clovis WHAT: --WHERE: Moissac WHEN: 1115-1135 HOW: --SIZE: 16’6”

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Flight into Egypt
WHO: Gislebertus WHAT: Capital WHERE: Autun (Burgundy, France) WHEN: 1130 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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The Last Judgment

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WHO: Gislebertus WHAT: Stone WHERE: Burgundy

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WHEN: 1120-1135 HOW: --SIZE: ---

Leaning Tower of Pisa
WHO: --WHAT: --WHERE: Pisa, Italy WHEN: 1174-1271 HOW: --SIZE: 56’

CAMPANILE OF PISA CATHEDRAL

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Bayeux Tapestry
WHO: --WHAT: Wool embroidery on
linen

WHERE: Bayeux, France WHEN: 1070-1080 HOW: --SIZE: 20” high

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Plan of St. Sernin
WHO: Commissioned by St. Sylvius WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Toulouse, France WHEN: 1080-1120 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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Saint Denis
WHO: Suger WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Paris WHEN: Rebuilt in 1137 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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Saint Denis
WHO: Suger WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Paris WHEN: Rebuilt in 1137 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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Cross Section of a Gothic Cathedral

Chartres
WHO: WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Chartres, France WHEN: 13th century HOW: --SIZE: ---

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Chartres continued

St. Theodore of Chartres

Doorjamb statues of west facade

Chartres continued

Long view of the South Wall

Stained glass

Reims
WHO: --WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Reims, France WHEN: Began rebuilding in 1211 HOW: --SIZE: Nave is 125’ high

West facade

Reims continued

Nave

Reims continued

Sculpture of the Annunciation and Visitation

Reims continued

Sainte-Chapelle
WHO: Commissioned by King Louis
IX

WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Paris WHEN: 1243-1248 HOW: --SIZE: 32 x 99.5’

Rayonnant style

Salisbury Cathedral
WHO: --WHAT: Gothic Cathedral WHERE: England WHEN: 1220 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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King’s College Chapel
WHO: Vaulting designed by John
Wastrell; founded by Henry VI; master mason Reginald Ely

WHAT: Late Gothic Cathedral WHERE: Cambridge, England WHEN: 1441 HOW: --SIZE: ---

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