The ABCs: Techniques of Adult CPR

ABCs of CPR
(Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation)

MS. AGATHA L. GARCIA, R.N.
November 29, 2008

Objectives:
At the end of the discussion, the participants are expected to:
‡ Discuss the basic principles and mechanics of basic life support in cardio-pulmonary arrest. ‡ Demonstrate the techniques in performing cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in a given situation.

Requirements .

.Why the Need for CPR Training? Cardiovascular diseases are now the leading causes of death in the country. Most people die of a heart attack before they even reach the hospital. There are other situations aside from heart attack that can lead to cardio-respiratory arrest and therefore needs CPR Since these events can occur anytime and anywhere. it is the person nearest the victim who may witness this arrest This person must be able to recognize this emergency and must be able to institute CPR immediately.

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Chain of Survival ‡ Early Call for Help ‡ Early CPR ‡ Early defibrillation ‡ Early medical care .

Action in an Emergency Is anyone in danger? Move to the quietest victim first Open the airway If not breathing Check for breathing If breathing Look for signs of circulation Continue Rescue Breathing START CPR!!! .

CPR can provide up to 30% of the µnormal¶ heart output. ‡ When effective. . ‡ Victim¶s chance of survival drops 7-10% per minute without CPR from start of cardiac arrest.CPR ‡ Provides temporary O2 to blood and brain by external breathing and external chest compression to the body. ‡ Delays cerebral (brain) death while waiting for other treatments described in the Chain of Survival.

Survey the Scene ‡ Survey for safety of the victim and the rescuer ‡ Look up. down. and left . right.

Check for Responsiveness ‡ Tap or gently shake the victim ‡ ³Are you OK?´ .

Call for Help!!! ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Details of what happened Number of people injured Type of illness or injuries Whether or not person is breathing ‡ The exact address with landmarks if possible ‡ A contact phone number .

Airway: Head Tilt Chin Lift ‡ Place one hand on victim¶s forehead ‡ Place fingers of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw near chin ‡ Tilt head and lift jaw avoid closing victim¶s mouth .

Jaw Thrust: Head or Neck Injury .

Check for Breathlessness ‡ Maintain open airway ‡ Place you ear over victim¶s mouth and nose L Look for chest rise L Listen for air movement in your ear F Feel for breathing on your cheek for 5 to 10 seconds .

make a tight seal around outside of victim¶s mouth ‡ Give 2 slow breaths (1 breath in every second) ‡ LLF ‡ Allow for exhalation between breaths .Breathing: 2 Rescue Breaths ‡ Maintain open airway ‡ Pinch nose ‡ Open your mouth.

‡ Locate Adam¶s Apple with middle and index finger. ‡ Slide finger down into the groove of neck on side closest to you. but not more than 10 seconds .Check for Pulse ‡ Maintain head tilt with one hand on forehead. ‡ Feel carotid pulse for 5-10 seconds.

‡ With middle and index fingers of hand nearest victim¶s legs. ‡ Kneel facing the victim¶s chest. ‡ Compress down and release pressure smoothly. keeping hand contact with chest at all times .Circulation ‡ Locate compression area. locate lower edge of victim¶s rib cage on side closest to you ‡ Follow rib cage to µnotch¶ at lower end of beast bone ‡ Position shoulders over hands with elbows locked and arms straight ‡ Give 30 compression: compress breast bone 1 ½ .2 in.

continue 30:2 beginning with chest compression ‡ Recheck pulse every two minutes .Adult One-Rescuer CPR ‡ Continue cycles of 30 compressions followed by 2 slow breaths ‡ After 5 cycles of 30:2 (about 2 minutes). check pulse ‡ If still with no pulse.

give cycles of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 slow breaths by Rescuer 1 .If no pulse.check carotid pulse ‡ Rescuer 2 .If no pulse.check breathing (LLF) .2 slow breaths . chin lift) . .Adult Two-Rescuer CPR ‡ Rescuer 1 . check pulse. continue 30:2 cycle (Rescuer 2 giving 30 compressions. followed by Rescuer 1 giving 2 slow breaths .After 1 minute.open airway (head tilt.

Recovery Position .

Dependent Lividity) 3. No physiological benefit can be expected because the vital functions have deteriorated as in septic or cardiogenic shock. and confirmed trisomy 13 or 18. (Rigor mortis. Decapitation. Patient has signs of irreversible death. Confirmed gestation of <23 weeks or birth weight <400 grams. anencephaly. (Do Not Attempt Resuscitation) 2. 4.All victims of cardiac arrest should receive CPR unless: 1. . Patient has a valid DNAR order.

When to Stop CPR? 1. the scene is no longer safe. Recognition of reliable criteria indicating irreversible death. 3. Presentation of a valid DNAR order to the rescuer. Responsibility is assumed by a more senior emergency medical professional who may determine unresponsiveness to resuscitation efforts such as a paramedic arriving on the scene or a physician in the E. 4. Rescuer is unable to continue resuscitation due to exhaustion. or when continued resuscitation may place other lives at risk. 5.R. . Effective and spontaneous (normal) breathing and circulation has been restored. 2.

perform 30 compressions on the chest. 2. 4. 3. 5. feel for chest rise with your hand. Do this for 4 cycles and then recheck for signs of circulation. look.CPR: All Together Now Establish scene safety. then give 2 breaths (30:2) 8. C ± Circulation ± Is the patient moving? Is he/she motionless and not breathing? And what is the skin color? 7. listen. Go get HELP! A ± Airway ± Open It! Head Tilt / Chin Lift B ± Breathing ± Check for breathing. 6. 1. give two breaths. If not moving and no signs of circulation. . Determine unresponsiveness. IF NOT BREATHING.

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