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does not travel through a vacuum In gases and liquids, primarily longitudinal waves In solids, can have transverse and longitudinal components Vibrations in fluids produce alternating high-pressure regions (called condensations) and low pressure regions (called refraction)
As disturbance reach the ear, the eardrum is set into vibration with pressure vibrations. On the other side of the ear drum, tiny bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup) carry the vibrations to the inner ear, where they are picked up by the auditory nerve
cats and bats . if f > 60. aircrafts.Characteristics of ear limit the perception of sound.000 Hz Infrasonic. Audible range for normal human ear is 20 Hz ± 20. if f < 20 Hz Example: Waves generated by wind and weather patterns. longitudinal waves generated by earthquakes Can be perceived by elephants and cattle Ultrasonic.000 Hz Example: Those generated by high frequency vibrations in crystals Can be heard by dogs. automobiles.
Energy of sound is very small energy of 40.Ultrasound is used in sonars.000 people shouting is equivalent to the energy for a 40-W bulb . in medical diagnosis and in ultrasonic baths.
In fluids. least in gases In thin solid rods.Speed of sound Sound travels fastest in solids. Y v ! V v ! B V K RT in ideal gases v ! MW .
At STP. v = 331 + 0.tc.61 tc m/s ft/s v = 1.087 ft/s This is approximately 1 km } 1 mi 3 s 5h Used to estimate how far away lighting has struck by counting the no. At temperature.1(tf ± 32) .087 + 1. tF. of sec between the times you see the flash and you hear the thunder. v = 331 m/s = 1. speed in air. At temperature.
Speed of sound in materials at 00C and 1 atm unless otherwise noted. m/s 1580 1322 3100 3560 5640 5790 5790 . Medium Air Air (20 0C) Helium Hydrogen Mercury (25 0C) Water (25 0C) Seawater (25 0C) V. m/s Medium 331 343 972 1284 1450 1493 1533 Muscle (37 0C) Lead Concrete Copper Pyrex glass Aluminum Steel V.
How far away is the train? .1 sec before Ollie hears it through the air. He hears the sound of the train whistle through the track 2. Stan puts his ear to the steel track to hear the train coming.5 x 105 Hz.Exercises 2/443 Dolphins emit ultrasonic waves with a frequency as high as 2. What is the wavelength of such a wave in seawater at 25 0C? 4/443 Stan and Ollie hears standing next to a train track.
what is the speed of sound in a thin rod made from this alloy? 10/444.1 x 1011Pa and a density of 8.920 kg/m3.8/443 A copper alloy has Y = 1. How far away is the lightning strike? .2 s later the boom of the thunder is heard. The temperature of the air is 12 0C. A lightning flash is seen in the sky and 8. What is the speed of sound at that temperature? Hint: light is an EM wave with c = 3 x 10 8 m/s b. a.
Intensity if Sound P I! A ! 1 [ BKA2 2 ! 1 2 v 2 B V[ A ! Pmax 2B 2 2 2 Pmax ! 2v V Variation with distance from point source: I! P 4T R 2 p I1 ! I2 2 R2 2 R1 .
the sound is uncomfortably loud and may be painful to the ear. Ip Intensity level in decibel. This is called the threshold of pain. I0 .Intensity Level of Sound Sound intensity is perceived by the ear as loudness On the average. This is called the threshold of hearing. d F ! 10 log10 I I0 . . At an intensity of 1 W/m2. the human ear can detect sound waves (at 1 kHz) with an intensity as low as 10 ± 12 W/m2.
Intensity level. dB 180 140 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 20 0 Source of sound Rocket launch Jet take-off Pneumatic drill Rock band with amplifiers Machine shop Subway train Average factory City traffic Normal conversation Average home Quiet library Soft whisper Threshold of hearing Remarks Threshold of pain Exposure to sounds over 90 dB for long periods may affect hearing .
Exercises 11/444 .6 x 10-4 m2. how much energy is absorbed by the eardrum in 3. assuming it to be an isotropic source? .0 minutes? 12/444 The sound level 25 m from a loudspeaker is 71 dB. What is the rate at which sound energy is produced by the loudspeaker. A sound with an intensity level of 80 dB is incident on an eardrum of area 0.
There are no reflections. 56/507 Two sources of sound are located on the x-axis. The sound spreads out uniformly in all directions. and each emits power uniformly in all directions. Where on the x-axis are the 2 sounds equal in intensity? Note that there are 2 answers. The intensity of sound is 2 x 10 6 W/m2 at a distance of 120 m from the explosion. The source at the origin emits 4 times as much power as the other source. .8 x 10 6 W/m2. Find the distance from the source at which the intensity is 0.50/507 Cutnell A rocket in fireworks display explodes high in the air. One source is positioned a the origin and the other at x = +123 m.
14/444 Text At a race track. the engineer decides that the music isn¶t loud enough. By what % does the a. One race car starts its engine with a resulting intensity level of 98 dB. increases by 50%. what is the new intensity level with all eight cars running at the starting line? 18/444 Text At a rock concert. Intensity level change? . If the other seven cars produce the same intensity level as the first car. Then seven more cars start their engines. intensity increase? b. He turns up the amplifiers so that the amplitude of the sound where you¶re sitting.
The waves reflected from the walls. create. At a certain point. .64/507 Cutnell A loudspeaker is generating sound in a room. What is the total intensity level? Hint: the answer is not 147 dB. an intensity level of 72 dB at the same point. the sound waves coming directly from the speaker (without reflecting from the walls) create an intensity level of 75 dB. by themselves.
.Doppler Effect A variation in the perceived wave frequency due to the relative motion of source and observer.
¨ 1 s v0 ¨ v s v0 ¸ v © fo ! © ¹ fs ! © 1 # vs v # vs º ª v ª Where: ¸ ¹f s ¹ º v0 > 0 if the obserever is moving toward the source. < 0 if moving away from the source vs > 0 if the source is moving toward the observer. < 0 if away from the observer .
vt v sin U ! ! v s t vs vs Mach No.. M ! v .
As a plane accelerates to just break the sound barrier. The origin of this cloud is still debated. an unusual cloud might form. .
the large concentration of energy produces what is known as a sonic boom. .Shock wave trails out to the sides and downward of supersonic aircrafts. There are two such booms because shock waves are formed at both ends of the aircraft. When this pressure ridges passes over an observer on the ground.
At what frequency does the driver of the car hear the siren? 38/445 A source of sound waves of frequency 1 kHz travels through air at 0.Exercises 35/445 An ambulance traveling at 44 m/s approaches a car heading in the same direction at a speed of 28 m/s. Away from her .5 times the speed of sound. Find the frequency of the sound received by a stationary observer if the source moves a. The ambulance driver has a siren sounding at 350 Hz. Toward her b.
The higher pitch has a frequency that is 5 % higher than the lower pitch. The shock wave forms with an angle U=220 with the direction of motion of the plane. At the bottom of her swing she hears a higher pitch if she¶s moving toward the whistle. What is the Mach no.40/445 A child on a swing hears the sound of a whistle that is being blown directly in front of her. What is the speed of the child at the bottom of the swing? 46/446 a plane is flying at supersonic speed at an elevation where the sped of sound is 322 m/s. How fast is the plane traveling? . a. and a lower pitch if she is moving away from it. for this plane? b.
Both can be treated as ideal gases.8 u.Homework 34/506.74 m at 20 0C. 40/506. The temperature of the krypton is 293 K. Cutnell The sound wave travels as far in neon as it does in krypton in the same time interval. What si the temperature of neon? . Cutnell The wavelength of a sound wave in air is 2. The atomic mass of neon is 20.2 u and that of krypton is 83. What is the wavelength of this sound wave in fresh water at 20 0C? Hint: the frequency sound is the same in both media.
32/506. The speed of sound in air at 20 0C is 343 m/s. On a day when the temperature is 20 0C. and the density of steel is 7860 kg/m3. how many times greater is the speed of sound in the rail than in the air? . Find the wavelength of sound if the air temperature is 35 0C. Cutnell A bat emits a sound whose frequency is 91 kHz. Cutnell Have you ever listened for an approaching train by kneeling next to a railroad track and putting your ear to the rail? Young¶s modulus for steel is 2 x 1011 N/m2.30/505.
and the sound intensity level is 80 dB. Cutnell A typical adult ear has a surface area of 0. . Assume that the sound strikes the surface of the ear perpendicularly. Cutnell Two identical rifles are shot at the same time. How much power is intercepted by the ear? 65/507. The sound intensity during a normal conversation is about 3.0021 m2. What would be the sound intensity level if only one rifle were shot? Hint: The answer is not 40 dB.2 x 10 ± 6 W/m2 at the listener¶s ear.48/507.
60/507 Cutnell A recording engineer works in a sound-proofed room that is 44 dB quieter than the outside. What is the ratio of the sound intensity just detected by the man to that just detected by the woman? . while a man can just begin to hear the tone only when the intensity level is increased by 7. If the sound intensity in the room is 1.8 dB relative to that for the woman. Cutnell A middle-aged man typically has poorer hearing than a middle-aged woman. what is the intensity outside? 58/507.2 x 10 10 W/m2. In one case a woman can just begin to hear a musical tone.
What is the ratio of the frequency you hear while the car is approaching to the frequency you hear when the car is moving away? . pass it and drive away. you observe the frequency to change by 95 Hz. As you drive toward this a parked car. The speed of the car is constant 9 m/s and the speed of sound is 343 m/s. The speed of sound is 343 m/s. Cutnell The security alarm on a parked car goes off and produces a frequency of 960 Hz. At what speed are you driving? 74/507. its loudspeakers are producing a sound.70/507. Cutnell A convertible moves toward you and then passes you: all the while.
When the car is stationary. What is the acceleration of the car? . The speed of sound is 343 m/s. the frequency heard by the person ahs decreased to 912 Hz. Just after the car passes a stationary person. its horn emits a sound whose frequency is 1.000 Hz. the person hears a frequency of 966 Hz. Cutnell A car is accelerating while its horn is blowing . 14 seconds alter.78/508.
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