Chapter 16

Solid Waste

Introduction to Solid Waste Regulations ‡ 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act ‡ 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ‡ 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to RCRA ‡ 1990 Pollution Prevention Act .

glass. including solid. refuse. mining and agricultural operations and from community activities´ ‡ Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Paper. commercial. aluminum. or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial. liquid. cardboard. sludge from a waste treatment plant. rubber and leather. water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded material. wood. textiles. .Classification of Solid Waste ‡ Non-Hazardous Solid Waste (according to RCRA) ³Any garbage. food wastes and other. plastics. ferrous metals. semisolid.

transported.Classification of Solid Waste ‡ Hazardous Waste (according to RCRA) 1) cause or contribute significantly to serious. Reactive. irreversible incapacitating illness or mortality. stored. Ignitable or Corrosive . disposed of or otherwise managed Toxic. OR 2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated.

MSW Collection & Disposal ‡ Historic emphasis on collection ‡ Unacceptable disposal methods: ± Feed for hogs ± Dumping in water ± Open dumping .

MSW Collection & Disposal ‡ Current Acceptable disposal methods: A. . Source reduction & reuse ‡ Product package reuse ‡ Package or product redesign that reduces material or toxicity ‡ Reducing use or modifying practices.

MSW Disposal B. Resource recovery ‡ Recycling 1) source separation 2) materials recovery facility (MURFs) 3) producing and selling recyclable material Advantages? Disadvantages? Government incentives: » ³bottle bills´ » Prohibition of disposal of certain wastes » Minimum recycled content mandate .

«.MSW Disposal ‡ Composting Utilizing natural biochemical decay to transform organic wastes into products for use as soil conditioner. » » » » preparation digestion curing finishing .

MSW Disposal C. Landfilling ‡ Disadvantages: ± ± ± ± tipping fee Ground settling Anaerobic decomposition Leachate .

MSW Disposal Solution to proper landfilling: ± Careful site selection ± RCRA subtitle D (1993): new landfill requirements Landfilling has become expensive as a result but is still the most used waste disposal method in the US (61% in 1999). .

Combustion  Waste to Energy (WTE) plants.MSW Disposal D.  Advantages?  By mid 1990s. heavy metals. other pollutants  1991 tighter controls approved by the Clean Air Act Amendments: o Air emission controls to capture products of incomplete combustion . increased  By 1999 just 119 incinerators were operational  Air emissions: dioxins.

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