Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy.

Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster
Session 1: Part 1: Culture is it an elusive energy? Part II: Significance of Culture is strategic decision making

Talking Points
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Culture: definitions and concepts Elements of Culture Role of Culture in organizations Variables of Culture Characteristics of Culture Dimensions of Culture Culture & behavior

law. art. morals. belief. custom and other capabilities and habits of man as a member of society ‡ Claude Lévi-Strauss: Culture is a force in its own right ‡ Hofstede (1997): the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group of people from another ‡ Trompenaars (1994): culture is the way in which a group of people solves problems ‡ Edgar Schein (1992): a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration .Culture: Some Definitional Snapshots culture is the complex whole reinforced by ‡ Tylor (1871) knowledge.

Elements of Culture ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Communication Cultivated Behavior Learned and accumulated experience Explicit & Implicit patterns Values Norms Artefacts Sum total of learned behavior Collective programming of the mind .

Is Culture Growing in Importance? .

Role of culture in Organizations ‡ What does it focus on? ‡ What does it facilitate? ‡ How does it happen? .

Variables of Culture ‡ Differentiators of Culture: .

Norms Staff Leadership & Management Style Individual & Group Personality Productivity Motivation Commitment Ethics Kinship & Family Education Religion Health Recreation .Variables of culture: The Differentiators National Economic system Legal system Political system Physical Situation Technology knowhow Socio-cultural Religion Education Language Organizational Structure System Policies.

Characteristics of Culture ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Learned behavior Shared behavior Shared system of meanings Based on tradition and custom Adaptive Subject to change Wide in scope Related to many things and does not exist in isolation Socially constructed realities Best understood in relation to groups Relative .

Dimensions of Culture ‡ Aspects of culture that are inherited and preserved and also modified with passage of time. Rituals & customs Reflection and practices Identifies an organization or community Renders stability Ensures control .

Organization Culture .

Robbins (1989) ‡ Viewed cultural dimensions from the following perspectives:  Innovation & risk taking  Attention to detail  Outcome orientation  People orientation  Team orientation  Aggressiveness  Stability .

Handy (1993) Role Culture Power Culture Task Culture Person Culture Organization culture .

Rousseau s Ring (1990) Fundamental Assumptions Values Behavioral norms Patterns of Behavior Artefacts .

e. differentiation . productivity of firms is fundamental to competitiveness ‡ Reinforcing different employee role behaviors/ culture which fit with a particular generic competitive strategy.Porterian Strategy and the Matching Model of SHRM ‡ According to Michael Porter. whether low cost . This has to happen by matching the five Ps i.:  Philosophy  Policies Failing to match competitive strategy with HRM dynamics results in role conflict and  Programs ambiguity hampering organizational  Practices effectivenessopetitivyit HRM dynamics  Processes . or focus is critical.

Setting up Strategic Value-behavior Fitness: (Michigan Model) Organizational Strategies C o n s i s t e n c y Consistency Environment C o n s i s t e n c y Fit Fit Value behavior Fit Fit Organizational Characteristics Consistency Organizational Capabilities .

They can be found in strategy statements. They are highly determined by people at work in the organization . they are continuously developing and changing.Mc-Kinsey 7-S Model: Harvard Model ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Strategy Structure Systems Style Staff Skills Super-ordinate goals Hard S: Factual and easy to identify. organization charts & other documentation The Soft S s are difficult to describe. corporate plans.

quality. and time to market of a Chrysler small car versus Toyota wherein Toyota had a 30% cost advantage. almost one half of the defects.Cases for thought ‡ Leadership from the bottom: employee and customer value even in the face of all odds Taj Mumbai during and after 26/11 ‡ Jeff Dyer s review of Benchmarking study conducted by Bain & Company for Chrysler comparing cost. 1993) . and 33% faster product development cycle in four years versus six for Chrysler (Dyer & Ouichi.

Train & Manage Meaningful Career Development Appraise & Develop Motivation & Reward . Goals and Strategy HRM Goals and Strategy Human Resource Management Appropriate work structure & culture Redevelopment & termination of employment Attract & Select Performance & Growth Induct.Managing the Employee Life Cycle Business Mission.

concern and care .National Culture Influencing Organization Culture ‡ Assertiveness: confrontational & competitive ‡ Future Orientation: planning & investing in future ‡ Performance Orientation: importance attached to performance & excellence ‡ Humane Orientation: practice of rewarding people & nurturing values of fairness.

status symbols ‡ Individualism ( I consciousness): Valuing individual achievement. promotions & wealth . accomplishments.Critical Operational Value Differences ‡ Time: differences in temporal values ‡ Change: to what extent one can exert control over the future ‡ Material factors: consumption of resources. physical goods.

000 managers from 28 countries . 1990): 116.000 respondents from 70 different countries individuals working in local subsidiaries of IBM ‡ Ronen & Kraut: Work Value & Attitude Dimensions (SSA analysis) among Country clusters ‡ Trompenaars s Cultural dimensions (1994): Universalism versus Particularism: 15.Cross-National Comparisons: Culture Surveys ‡ Hofstede s Cultural Dimensions (1969-73.

Key Questions 1)What is meant by the term culture ? What is meant by the term value? Should international firms always go for value and culture surveys before entering a new market if so why? Nidhi & Shikha 2) Describe the four dimensions of culture proposed by Hofstede. Give examples relative to specific countries. material factors and individualism. What are the managerial implications of these dimensions? Rajesh & Prabhakar 3) Discuss Trompenaars s Value dimensions in what ways do they correspond to/ are different from Hosfstede s dimensions? Pushpanjali & Vivek 4) Discuss the different operational conflicts that could occur in an international context because of different attitudes toward time. change. Sushanta & Prabhat 5) In what ways has technology enabled organisational cultures to change? What challenges or issues do these changes present to managers and leaders? Snehashish & Neha .

Saudi Arabia. Abdullah s office.m. Abdullah. Abdullah seemed more interested in engaging in meaningless banter than in dealing with the substantive issues concerning their business. an international real estate developer from Dallas. ‡ From the beginning things did not go well for Tim. First. he was kept waiting until 4:00 p. a high-ranking government official in Riyadh. had made a 2:30 p. ‡ When he finally did get in. he was reluctant to get too specific because he considered much of what they needed to discuss was sensitive and private. ‡ Mr.m. before he was ushered into Mr. ‡ How might you help Tim with his frustration? Milan & Tapan . appointment with Mr.Experiential Exercise: ‡ Tim Robbins.

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