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FIBER OPTIC CABLE Duct Cable Installation

CONTENTS
1. General Instruction and Precautions 1.1 Handling of optical fiber cable drums 1.2 Allowable tension and cable laying speed 1.3 Permissible cable bending radius 1.4 Excess length of cable end Cable Laying Into Duct 2.1 The procedure of duct cable laying 2.2 Preliminary survey of manholes and duct route 2.3 Setting up the scaffold in manhole 2.4 Rodding 2.5 Duct cleaning 2.6 Mandrill passing test 2.7 Dummy cable passing test 2.8 Manpower allocation in each manhole 2.9 Pulling cable into duct Cable Fixing and Protection in Manhole 3.1 Preparation 3.2 Fixing of the cable laid through 3.3 Fixing of the cable with joint closure

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DUCT CABLE INSTALLATION
INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR INSTALLATION OF OPTICAL FIBER CABLE (DUCT CABLE) 1. General Instruction And Precautions: 1.1 Handling of optical fiber cable drums. 1.1.1 At the time of loading or unloading, cable drum shall not be given any severe shocks or damages. 1.1.2 Drums shall not be rolled for the long distant transportation or the transportation on a down slope, excepting for the short movements at the site. 1.1.3 Drums shall always be rolled to the direction indicated by the arrow mark on the flanges or battens of the drum. 1.1.4 The battens of the drum shall be remained until the time of cable laying. 1.2 Allowable tension and cable laying speed. 1.2.1 At the time of cable installation, cables shall be pulled with the uniform tension specified without shocks or sudden pulling or stopping. 1.2.2 Allowable tension:Allowable tension of optical fiber cable shall be 170 kg. 1.2.3 It is preferable to add the pulling force by manpower. Pulling tension for cable laying into duct shall be adjusted as follows:(a) Head pulling force Cable pulling by manpower: 170 kg (b) Intermediate pulling force The pulling force which is applied by the workers at the intermediate manhole shall be synchronized with the head pulling force. 1.2.4 Laying speed It is preferable to pull cables into duct with the speed of less than 15m/min. 1.3 Permissible cable bending radius. (a) Optical fiber cable shall be handled carefully with keeping enough curvature. (b) Permissible cable bending radius is as follows:condition: more than 150 mm time of installation: more than 300 mm

- Fixed - At the

1.4 Excess length of cable end. The adequate excess length at the end of each cable shall be reserved for jointing operation as shown in Figure 1.

5 m (Tail end) Center of cable joint Figure. 1 Overlapping of cable ends 2.5.2 m (Overlap length) 2.7 m (Pulling end) 2.1 The procedure of duct cable laying The procedure of laying of optical fiber cable into duct is as follows: Preliminary survey of the manholes and duct route Setting up the scaffold in manhole (if necessary) Rodding Cleaning of the duct (if necessary) Mandrill passing test (if necessary) Cable-pulling rope into duct Pulling cable into duct Protection of cable in manhole Clear away . Cable Laying Into Duct: 2.

rodding work shall be stopped and appropriate measures such as replacement.2. The size of mandrill . Brush Pulling direction Wire 4.5 Duct cleaning (if necessary) The cleaning devices such as brush or rag are fixed on a rope or a steel wire. a small PE pipe with smalldiameter shall be passed through the duct.4 D (mm) 73 73 L (mm) 300 600 Table 1. In this case. This rope or wire shall be remained in the duct for cable pulling operation.4 Rodding After selection of the duct allocated for cable to be laid. or blockade of duct by soil or sand. repair or alteration of the duct shall be taken. 2. 2.0 mm steel wire or the like Rag Wire for pulling back 4. The size of mandrill shall be applied as follows: Application Duct section which is less than 150 m Duct section which is more than 150 m Type No.2 Preliminary survey of manholes and duct route The following items shall be checked before cable laying works: (a) The position and the number of manholes and handholes with each span length. (b) The position of available ducts in which cables to be installed.0 mm steel wire or the like Figure.3 Setting up the scaffold in manhole A scaffold for installation work shall be set up in a large manhole if required. 2. If the rod cannot be passed though. 2 Cleaning the duct 2.3 No.6 Mandrill passing test (if necessary) If necessary. this test is conducted at the time of the duct cleaning with a mandrill on the wire or rope besides the cleaning devices. The inner duct shall be clean with this wire or rope pushing forward and pulling back. the reason of it may be due to breakage or slip off of ducts.

G. L Cable feeding end Man hole Figure. this mandrill passing test shall be conducted.D I (Material: Hard Wood) Before laying cables. if necessary. example of allocation of workers is shown in Figure 3. dummy with the length of 2 m shall be used. 3 D uc t Optical fiber cable Cable pulling end 2 or 3 persons Interm Interm ediate ediate manho manho Arrangement of manpower in each manhole le le Pulling end Jointing point manhole. a dummy cable with the length of 10 m and with the same or larger diameter of the optical fiber cable to be laid shall be used. . of optical fiber cable and pulling wire. it must be failure. 2. In this case. In the case of the passing test for matallic large size cable. the following test shall be conducted. the flaws on the surface of this dummy cable shall be examined and recorded for the judgement of duct failure. The dummy cable shall be painted with black paint for detection flaws and cable grips and twist free devices shall be provided at the both end of it.8 Manpower allocation in each manhole.7 Dummy cable passing test (if necessary) This test shall be conducted for concrete ducts. After the test. If mandrill is hardly passed through the duct. 2. In the case of pulling optical fiber cable by manpower. asbestos cement ducts. and other ducts through which mandrill is difficult to pass. For this test.

4g wire up cable pulling force Setting 2.9. 5 Jointing method of rope Kn ot 1.9 Pulling cable into duct 2. 1.2.6 mm galvanized steel wire ( 5 (400) ) Wound by vinyl adhesive tape Figure.2 Cable-pulling rope into duct When the work force for cable pulling is positioned and stand by cable-pulling rope or steel wire rope shall be jointed with the end of the lead rope which was laid in duct at rodding.6 mm galvanized steel wire ( 5 ) Wound by vinyl adhesive tape .1 Setting up The workers for pulling operation shall be positioned at the last manhole as : follows Pullin g force 2 or 3 persons Pulling end manhole Du ct Pullin Figure. Pulling Force Less than 200 kg More than 200 kg Type of Cable±Pulling Rope Optical fiber cable pulling-nylon rope Steel wire rope Jointing methods of cable-pulling rope with lead rope are shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.9.

FIBER OPTIC CABLE Aerial Cable Installation .

6 Tensioning the cable 6.4 Dampers Installation 6.4 Survey 3. .1 Placement of the drum and the pulling equipment 6.2.5 Other Cable Accessories 5.5 Pulling out the cable 6.1. 2.2.1 General 3.4 Fastening the pulling wire to the cable 6. 5.2 Type of Installation Points Planning 3.2.1 Pulling with tension 2. 6.3 Planning basis 3.2. 4.2.1 Tension points 5.1 Different Installation Methods 2.1.2 Suspension points 5.Contents 1.3 Joint points 5.1.8 Suspension point Joint Points Measurements and Documentation 3.3 Pulling out a pulling wire 6. 8.2 Placement of running-out blocks 6.2.7 Tension point 6.1 Limitations 6.3 Pulling out on the ground 2.2 Route 3.2 Pulling without tension 2.2. 7.2.2 Pulling Method 6. Introduction General Comments 2.

1. and tensioned with braking equipment at the other. and Figure 1. Figure 2. Pulling without tension have different characteristics. The cable is allowed to fall to the ground during pulling out. with a (motor) winch at one end. Then it is hoisted up to correct position. 2. Later the cable is tensioned hoisted up to correct position. General Comments 2. This document gives a brief outline of methods and accessories for aerial cable installations.1 Pulling with tension The cable is pulled out through running-out blocks placed in towers.1. and different equipment is used.3 Pulling out on the ground The cable is pulled out on the ground beside the tower line. It is a relative cheap installation method on existing poles or towers. 2. 2.1.2 Pulling without tension The cable is pulled at one end without tension at the outer end. Introduction Aerial cables are more and more used. tension points and suspension points.2 Type of Installation Points There are two kinds of installation points.1 Different Installation Methods 2. and tensioned. They Figure 3. Sometimes aerial installation is the only solution because of the shape of the ground.INSTALLATION METHODS OF AERIAL CABLE 1. Pulling with tension 2. Pulling out on the ground . The cable will never touch the ground.

They have different characteristics.If the pole is a joint point.If it is an end-point pole. Suspension and tension points . There are several possible reasons for choosing to make a tension point at a certain pole. .2 Type of Installation Points There are two kinds of installation points. . This means that there are longitudinal net forces in a tension point. Tension Point A tension point (dead end) is an installation point where the cable is tensioned to the pole. An installation point with sharper angle no longitudinal net present.Even if longer cable lengths are used the cable should be fixed in a tension every kilometer along the line route. The cable is tensioned on one side of the installation point.If there is a significant difference in altitude between the poles. . figure 4. and relaxed on the other. and different equipment is used. ) Tension point Suspension point Tension point Figure 5. For instance: . .2. For instance in a pole in the middle of a straight line. Suspension Point >15° point A suspension point is an installation point where there arethan 15° shall be a tension point forces Figure 4.If there ia a sharp angle of the line at the pole (> 15°). tension points and suspension points.

3. . 3. radio communication equipment is necessary. . . The cable quantity needed can also be calculated (add at least 20 meters of cable for each joint points).1 General The planning is a very important part of the installation work.A map for drawing planned joint points and route.2 Route If there are several alternatives of route. Where can pulling and tensioning equipment be placed?.How to place the cable in the poles compared to existing cables (if any). where can trucks with cable drums get trough?. There might be critical events when radio communication makes the difference between success and disaster.g. .A general map. etc.Joint plans for existing cables.Tension and suspension points.g.4 Survey The planner has to check the route in field regarding: . a route where the risk of damage on the cable is low. and must not be neglected.Where to place joint points.Crossing roads. rivers. Planning 3. 3.3 Planning Basis Following basis s for planning have to be made: . power line. scale 1:10 000. . . I.3. might be very important for the economy of the installation project.Cable specifications. . scale 1:50 000. road-work.Route regarding risks of damage when felling. railways. After survey it is possible to establish line route and joint points and draw them in a suitable map.The authorities requirements. . Preliminary joint points. etc.e.e. Using above following can be prepared: Preliminary route. The choice of places to work. 3. I. .Accessibility. choose. and they might be very far away and out of sight from other.5 Other Since a lot of people are involved at the same time in the installation procedure. e. with respect to the cables large communication capacity and the relative low price. a suitable route regarding safety of operation. .Pole spacing . e.

After survey it is possible to choose cable type. It can be made metal free (dielectric) and therefore suitable to install in power lines. Dielectric or metallic cable construction? Max. small dimensions and low weight. - . which makes it well suited for aerial use. allowed sag. The most important factors are: Span lengths. ice and wind loads. Max. Cable An optical fiber cable has high communication capacity.4.

which are known to work well by experience. are recommended in this document. dielectric. dielectric. Some types. Accessories for tension points. Shall be used with figure-8 cable design . For use with slotted core. cable designs in one tension point following accessories are needed. figure 9:(5) Anchoring eye 1 pcs (6) Termination sleeve 2 pcs see (5) (6) Figure 9. for instance slotted core. cable design or figure-8.1 Tension Point For slotted core. Normally it is not possible to use the same for both cable types. Accessories for tension points. Accessories There are a lot of difference types of accessories on the market. see figure 8:(1) Anchoring eye 1 pcs (2) Turnbuckle 2 pcs (3) Thimble 2 pcs (4) Preformed dead end 2 pcs (1) (2) (3) (4) Figure 8. dielectric. 5. cable designs For figure-8 cable designs in one tension point following accessories are needed.5. The choice of accessories depends on type of cable.

Shall be used with slotted core. dielectric. Accessories for suspension points. Accessories for suspension points.2 Suspension Points For slotted core. Shall be used with figure-8 cable design .5. dielectric cable design. For figure-8 cable designs in one suspension point following accessories are needed. see figure 11 :(10) Anchoring eye 1 pcs (11) Termination sleeve 2 pcs (10) (11) Figure 11. see figure 10 :(7) Holder 1 pcs (8) Hook 1 pcs (9) Suspension spiral 1 pcs (7) (8) (9) Figure 10. cable designs in one suspension point following accessories are needed.

Ericsson joint closure model NCD 504. But since this document mainly deals with span lengths up to 150 meters this subject is no further handled.2. Those parameters shall be given by the cable manufacturer.2 Pulling Method 6. see figure 12. . article no EN/LZT 108 578. 6. the closure contains a stack of 8 organizers. 6. the fiber organizers hold and protect the fibers and the fiber splices. not to have a sharp elevation angle. 5.1 Limitations When handling the cable there are two important parameters that shall not be exceeded. In the standard version. Installation All methods mentioned earlier are possible. The cable drum should be at a sufficient distance from the first pole.4 Dampers To avoid problems with galloping effects vibration dampers have to be used on long span lengths (> 150 200 meters). Separate jointing instruction for the joint closure is written and can be ordered from Ericsson.5. from the ground. Figure 12. Inside the closure. The closure is made of fire retardant plastic and waterproof. 6.3 Joint Points Use of Ericsson joint closure model NCD 504 is recommended. The parameters are minimum bending radius and maximum pulling force. but this recommendation will deal with pulling with tension . Every organizer can hold 12 single fiber splices or 8 ribbon fiber splices.1 Placement of the cable drum and the pulling equipment Decide where the suitable places for working with the cable drum and the pulling equipment are.

Place the stocking on the cable end. Cable attached to the pulling wire 6. for instance a motor winch. which will be suspension points. or other problem occurs.2. Certify that the pulling force never exceed the maximum allowed. at least equal to the distance from the installation point to the place of the splice box. carrying radio communication equipment. and pull out the cable with the pulling equipment. Fasten the pulling wire to the pulling equipment. There should be people at each pole.2. 6. Pull out an excess length of cable. or whatever is most suitable.2 Placement of running-out blocks Place a running-out block in each pole which will be reached by the present cable length. Pulling wire Swivel Stocking Cable Figure 13. It can for instance be checked with a dynamometer or regulated motor winch (or by checking the sag in a span).4 Fastening the pulling wire to the cable Fasten the pulling wire to the cable. If the cable or the pulling wire get stuck.3 Pulling out a pulling wire Thread a pulling wire through the running-out block in the first pole. Measure the sag with for instance a tachometer or by other methods. by using a swivel and a stocking. Typical sag is 2%. Fasten the cable in the last pole. 6. Attach the stocking to the pulling wire with a swivel.2. the sag is 2 meters. meaning that in a 100 meters span. Pull the wire to the next pole. Finally fasten the cable in the intermediate poles.6 Tensioning the cable Fasten the cable in the first pole. using accessories for a tension point. or use a braking capstan. see figure. and the cable can move freely in the running-out blocks. and some meters extra for splicing (minimum 20 meters). If the sag is correct in one span.2.5 Pulling out the cable Apply brakes to the cable drum. .6. The running-out blocks shall be so constructed that the minimum bending radius of the cable is ensured. Tension the cable with the pulling equipment to the desired sag. the radio is used to alert the people at the pulling equipment to stop pulling.2. 6. Thread the wire through the running-out block in this pole. by foot or by vehicle. then the sag is correct in all spans for this length of cable. and go on this way until the wire is pulled out in its entire length. also a tension point.

1. dielectric cable design. 6. Finally the hook is hanged up in the anchoring eye.2. 1 2 2 4 2 3 1 3 2 4 4 3 3 4 Figure 16.1 . Accessories numbered according to paragraph 5.7 Tension point 5 6 6 Figure 15.Sag Span length Figure 14. A piece of the sheath is removed from the end of the suspension strand. Principle of a tension point with a figure-8 cable design. Accessories numbered according to paragraph 5. Estimating the sag by using the tachometer. Principle of a tension point with a slotted core. The termination sleeve is pressed on the steel wire.

g. to make system support easy in the future. dielectric. cable design. a metal sign. with galvanised screws. 6 7.2. Accessories numbered according to paragraph 5.2.6. with a warning sign for laser beam and with the name of the section. . Principle of a suspension point with6a figure-8 cable design.To avoid damage. Figure 18. . Notice the minimum bend radius of the cable. . Joint Points The splicing should be performed in a vehicle. Principle of a suspension point with a slotted core. etc. Accessories numbered according to paragraph 5. The marking should by hard-wearing. placed as close to the pole as possible. or other protection. Fasten thereafter also the joint box to the pole. The cable loop (double cable) is coiled after finished splicing work and fastened to the pole.8 Suspension point 6 5 6 Figure 17.The joint box shall have suitable placing on the pole compared to existing cables.Joint box and cable loops shall be placed in a way that they easily can be taken down for repair and resplicing. number of the splice point. The splice box should be marked. place the box at least 4 meters from the ground. e.2. When choosing place for joint point it is important to take following into account: .

The attenuation and length between the joint points.19 dB/km Length AAAA AAAA No. splice loss in each joint point and attenuation for all fibers between joint points.19 dB/km 1754 the end points of the route). (2) Each pole shall have an ID.2 0.15 dB . Measure distance between joint points. BBBB No.10 dB 0. (4) Measure the route with an OTDR. and each span length between the poles shall be noted in a table (or on the map). with joint points marked. No.35 dB/km 0.19 dB 0.ID for cable between joint points.13 dB 0. in all fibers. 1 No. (5) Prepared a protocol. A cross section drawing of the cable type(s) in the system should also be attached to the 2 No. (1) Draw the route on a map. in all fibers.8.1 No.2 2113 m 2112 m 0.34 dB/km 0.2 0.02 and The 2 protocol shall be prepared with No.The splice loss of all joint points. It is recommendable to measure the splice loss from both directions and use the average value. (6) Store the protocols BBBB on suitable place for future use (for instance in the terminal boxes at m No.05 dB protocol.1 No.19 dB/km 1755 m 3 3 No.05 dB 0.10 dB 0.2 0. . (3) Give each joint point an individual ID and write the Id s on the map.18 dB/km 0.34 dB/km 0.34 dB/km 1550 nm 0.07 dB 0.12 dB 0.2 Attenuation 1310 nm 0.03 dB 0. An example of a protocol Joint point ID 1 1 Cable ID Fiber No.1 the both terminal dB points. The protocol shall (at least) include things like:. Measurements and Documentation It is important for future support of the system to have a proper documentation. .1 0.10 points as startingdB ending 0.

FIBER OPTIC CABLE Direct Burial Cable Installation .

2. b) At start of construction. d) Blasting (At Rocky Terrain) e) Pushing pipe under streets or railway. construction materials. b) Excavation of private land. g) Bridge crossing. c) Before starting burying operations. such as bench mark. excavated soils. or other accessible locations. If necessary. pole. 2.2 Safety work a) While excavating or cable laying work along or across highways. fire hydrant etc.3 Ploughing and trenching a) In order to carry out under-ground cable installation more effectively. General This section covers the standard procedure for installation of direct buried cables. . shall be protected with standard warning devices. 2. the centre line of the excavation shall be varified from a clearly defined object.1 Ordinances and permits Permits required for cable installation should be obtained before starting the work and should be reatained for immediate reference during the progress of work.1. Permits may be required for the following works. or alleys. machinery left on streets. c) Temporary use of the roads or private lands for construction work. f) River or streem crossings. Use of such machines will be decided according to local conditions. highways. 2. edge of curb. a) Excavation of the land belongs to the high way authorities. h) Temporary traffic close. streets. cable drums. The centre line should be shown on the blue print by direction and distance. operators shall make maximum effort to avoid exposing or making contact with the underground facilities belongs to third parties. trenching machines and/or ploughing machines will be used. Precautions The following precautions shall be taken when installing direct buried cables. several kinds of heavy construction machines such as excavators. the ground opening may be bridge with a structure of adequate strength to provide suitable passage for any traffic which is likely to pass over it. b) All ground opening. special care should be taken to minimize interference with traffic.

4. 3. Installation 4. excavated soil without stones is used for backfilling 4. . The bottom of trench shall therefore screened earth or sand before laying of cable. 3. other utilities and services.2 Trench in Rocky Terrain tape soil In case of burying in rockey terrain condition. test digging is executed along the route at every corner and at the places where other underground facilities are likely to exist.1 Location It is an advantageous to select a permanent location for buried plant. same side of the road shall be selected as cable route as much as possible so as not to cross the road frequently. Moreover. Route Design The purpose of detailed route survey is to clarify the following points prior to the preparation of materials and the starting of installation in order to ensure smooth execution of the project. the suitable digging position will be determined.3 Measuring route length With full recognization of the condition of the existing underground facilities through test digging.1 Dimension of trench 4. natural obstacles. Back Warning filling Normally. 3.1 Trench in normal soil The OF-Cable(s) shall be buried to a standard depth of 100 cm and a warning tape shall be buried above the cable at a depth of 30 cm below ground level. future road expansion and natural land movements. soil type.1. extreme care shall be taken with the OF-Cable to avoid contact with rocks. stones and other similar Cable heavy and sharp objects in the trench. Standard dimension of excavation for buried cable is shown in figure 1.2 Test digging After confirming the cable route.3.1. considering factors such as right-of way limitations. (Figure 2) be covered with 100 cm 30 cm Figure 1.

2 Protection of buried cables When laying cables along highways the contractor shall take protective measures to secure the cable against damage at the crossing over water culverts (concrete pipes) or others obstructing his path between 0.2.5 m to 0. the protection method shown below (Figure 3) shall be considered.0 m Crossing over drainage pipe .4. The bottom of trench shall therefore be covered with screened earth or sand before laying of cable.1 Trench in Rocky Terrain In case of burying in rockey terrain condition. (Figure 2) In place where the original depth can not be maintained for a long period.8m to 1.1. stones and other similar heavy and sharp objects in trench. no special measure is required as illustrated below 0. 100 cm 30 cm Warning tape Cab le 20 cm Screened earth or sand Figure 2 More than 50 cm 30 cm Screened earth or sand Figure 3 3 20 cm cm Cab le Warning Concrete tape protection 4.8 m ~ 1.1 In places where burying depth is between 0. extreme care shall be taken with the OF-Cable to avoid contact with rocks.8 m depth.0 m Cable 1. 4.0 m.

4.0 m 4.8 m or other Cab le Crossing over drainage pipe 1. concrete slabs or other agreed methods at 1. they shall be spaced by 10 cm at minimum.5 m ~ concrete slabs 0. special care must be taken for digging the soil around them.2 m to 0.5 m GIP Pipe Crossing over box culvert 1.5 m.3 Cable laying 4.5 m to 0.3 In places where burying depth is between 0. Undermentioned clearance between new buried cable and other facilities is required.2 m to 0. Protection by 0. below ground as illustrated below. (b) Placing arrangement of cable In case where more than two cables are laid in parallel.1 Basic articles (a) Reeling off cable drums The cable shall be reeled off from the cable drum according to the arrow mark indicating the direction of rotation of the drum. (c) Bending radius Cable shall not be bend repeatedly. etc. 3 0. 4.2.2 In places where burying depth is between 0. sewage.8 m.0 m. such as going into or coming out from stations or junctions.0 m 4.3. cables shall be protected by split-GIP. water main. protection by GIP or 4 at 1.) appear during digging. Bending radius of cable shall be as follows :During installation : Minimum or more than 15 times of cable diameter When fixed : Minimum or more than 10 times of cable diameter .4 Protection of existing facilities When existing facilities (Power line.0 m below the ground shall be made as illustrated.2.2.

(e) Laying tension Cables shall be pulled with constant and smallest possible tension in their laying work.g.3. with ordinary cargo trucks. etc. e. win ch wire rope chock lumber Figure 1 plan k tres tle 4.(d) Twist Cables shall never be twisted. Impact shall be avoided.Drums shall not be laid flat .3 Cable laying into trench (a) Site investigation Before laying cables.To check and confirm whether any obstruction exists on the route of cable which requires detouring or passing underneath. (f) Laying speed Laying speed of cable shall be less than 20 meter per minute. Rolling of drums shall not be allowed unless the distance is very short. . In case where a crane is used. one with a crane and the other with a winch. . Swivels shall be used in laying work.To confirm whether direct laying of cable into trench is possible or cable has to be once laid on the ground prior to laying in trench. 4. or cable carrier. Allowable tension strength is given by the specification of each type of cable. investigation shall be made for the condition of trench.2 Handling of cable drum (a) Stock .Investigate by pass and ground surface conditions along cable route. Figure 1 below shows how to load or unload a drum with a winch. care shall be taken to select and use appropriate wire enough for bearing weight of cable.Drums shall be kept in the stock yard with sufficient space for easy handling. (b) Transportation of cable There are several methods to transport cables.3. . . (c) Loading and unloading of cables There are two methods for loading and unloading cables on or from cargo truck .

cab le edge of trench (d) Cable laying by fixed drum method . . . . (Move cable drum method) .Utmost care shall be taken not to twist the cable when it is shifted into trench from ground.In case some obstruction exist in the trench and conditions of either by-pass or ground surface are unfavorable to force cable route to detour or to pass underneath.L.Setting of drum (I) In consideration of cable laying direction. (Fixed cable drum method) (c) Cable laying by move cable drum method .In case there is no obstruction in the trench. lower side tru ck cable drum tren ch ja ck cab le Figure 2 upper sideG. (II) Axis of cable jack shall be arranged to be set horizontally (III) Cable drums shall be set correctly in consideration of cable laying direction. .Load cable on a truck (Pick-Up) equipped with fixed jacks or use a a cable carrier.Cable shall be laid directly into the trench or onto road surface avoiding occurrence of twisting. drum shall be set at an end of trench or at an intermediate point.(b) Selection of laying method Upon the results of foregoing investigations and in consideration of the location of drum placing and necessity of rollers. a suitable laying method should be selected out of the following. or conditions of by-pass and/or ground surface allow easy cable laying in the trench.

0 mm iron wire ( 5-6 turns ) Wire rope . Unstrander (swivel) Pulling wire Cable grip 20 30 Cab le { { { { { 15 Snackle Figure 4 20 2. with its terminal wound to a winch is laid on the rollers. be provided. without exception.Arrangement of rollers and wire rope Roller shall be arranged within or on ground surface along trench line. between cable grip and A swivel shall pulling wire rope.Terminal treatment for pulling end A cable grip shall be provided as shown below Figure 4.V.C tape Figure 5 { { { . Win ch 5 10 m Wire rope Swiv Cable el grip Shac kle P.Drum Shaft Jack Figure 3 .

V.Post laying treatment and check (I) Check at both ends if sufficient margins have been provided for jointing. (III) Check extended meandering. the trench.C tape (½ lap-one shuttle wound) 1. (IV) In case cable is cut.F cable will be pulled on to the rollers by using the winch. ..Operations performed at the pulling end and at the letting out end during laying. falling stones. rollers and O. (II) Since drum and winch will be set on ground surface. operation shall be made so carefully as not to harm cable sheath when it passes edge of excavation. (II) A guiding aid personal shall be assigned at the terminal and laying shall be continuously made with a speed 10 20 m/min. cable shall be checked and if no trouble is found. the cable shall be pulled very carefully by hand or machine. (II) Check for exterior damage. cut end shall be covered with neoprene or plastic cap as shown in figure 6.F. .6 mm iron wire 30 mm spac Cap neoprene e Self bonding tape (½ lap-one or plastic shuttle wound) 6 Figure Cable . (IV) In case where rollers arranged on the ground.Cable laying operation (I) O. (III) When excessive tension is occurred. Adhesive P. and if any report the situation to supervisor immediately. utmost care shall be taken not to give twisting and/or extreme bending to the cable while laying it into the trench. (I) Close contact between men at both cable ends shall be kept during operation to respond any minor happening through transceivers or temporary telephones. etc.

(c) The width of road shoulder shall be more than 2. manpower and/or other appropriate digging machines shall be employed for trench construction.4 Method of ploughing 4. (e) No obstacles in cable laying route shall be exist.5 m man Mole Plough Vibration Roller Carriage way Road shoulder Figure 1 Warning device . (e) For bridge crossing. (a) The bulldozer for ripping shall be positioned in front of the ploughing machine.2. 4. culvert crossing etc. 1m from road shoulder within the embankment. (d) The continuous ploughing length shall be more than 2 km.2 Ploughing method The ploughing method shall be applied for cable installation as shown figure 1and 2.1 The ploughing machine may be used under the following conditions.5 m.4. (b) Permission of the Highway Department shall be taken. Watch 2.4. where moleplough cannot be used.4.4. or when there are obstacles in the cable route. (b) The cable drum shall be set on the ploughing machine and the cable shall be laid at depth of 100 cm below ground level together with warning tape.1 and 4. (c) In case two cables shall be buried in the same place two cable drums shall be set on the ploughing machine and two cables shall be laid simultaneously in the same place together with the warning tape in the same manner as mentioned in above paragraph 4. road surface shall be restored by vibration roller immediately.4. The warning tape shall be laid above the cable at a depth of 30 cm below ground level. (d) After finishing cable laying by moleplough. (a) The cable laying position shall be aligned approx. and ground condition is suitable for use of ploughing machine. Ripping Bulldozer Road shoulde r Approx.

The surplus length of cables for jointing allowance.x 50) x 360 Cable 40 0 37 0 15 2 50 60 100 0 . 2.0 m Warning Buried OFtape Cable Splicing Box (Option) The structure of direct buried splicing box as illustrated below shall consist of concrete frame and cover only for convenient access to spare cable portion and closure.Ripping Bulldozer Mole Plough Vibration Roller Figure 2 5. when splicing cable and in place where a spur-rout shall be installed later. The cable joint closure shall be set on wooden block. B A A 36 0 Cable closure 10 Of00 (Jointing Allowance is approx.3 m 1.5 m at each side) Cable B Plan View (unit : mm) OfCable Section A-A 10 68 00 5 San d Cable closure Sand bed 3 0 50 Concrete plate (600 Of. shall be laid at the bottom of splicing box (coil of approx. 0. 5 m).

6 4 ø6 0 3 ø6 mm mm 30 36 12 0 12 0 0 36 30 0 0 CLOSU RE 6 0 3 0 5 0 3 0 30 3 ø6 mmø6 4 mm 3 0 30 Section B B (Unit : mm) 6. Trenching Method Typical Requirement :100 mm 300 mm Grass Verge Trench Asp halt Warning Tape So il Crusher Run Concrete Slab (optional) San d Direct 300 mm Burial Carriageway Trench Cable 1000 mm 1500 mm 300 mm 500 mm 15 37 0 40 0 0 300 mm 500 mm 100 mm 100 mm 1000 mm 1500 mm .