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A Presentation on Optimal Solutions to Overcome Deficiencies in the Research Ecosystem of IITs

Prepared by :-Varun Choudhary. B.Tech 3rd year . Electrical Engineering, IIT Roorkee.

Under the guidance of :-Prof. D. K. Nauriyal, Department of Humanities, and Social Sciences. IIT Roorkee.

Jawahar Lal Nehru envisioned that the IIT system would over time "provide scientists and technologists of the highest caliber who would engage in research, design and development to help building the nation towards self-reliance in her technological needs. The IITs were entrusted with this immaculate task for this nation of a billion, through education, research and extension. They have, thus far, done the nation proud with the extremely high quality of education that they provide, though research has often been their undoing.

BACKGROUND IITs Ownership is hereby declared that each such institution is an institution of national importance.. says the INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY ACT, 1961 referring to the IITs that existed then. Each of the IITs
shall be a body corporate having perpetual succession and a common seal and shall, by its name, sue and be sued. The body corporate constituting each of the said Institute shall consist of a Chairman, a Director and other members of the Board for the time being of the Institute.

Objectives (Vision and Mission) The basic function of IITs is production of scientists and engineers of the highest caliber through education (1). It should be tightly integrated with research (2) and extension (3) . Goals & tasks of the institutes should relate continuously to changes taking place in the socioeconomic development of the country (4) and rapidly exploding universe of knowledge in science & technology (5). IITs should embody the student with values, enthusiasm and ability to engage in research, design and development to help building the nation towards self-reliance in her technological needs. Report of the Review Committee, 2004.

Education is given higher priority over research, followed by extension. IITs have to embody the socio-economic development of the nation into their goals & tasks.

The inferences that can be drawn are:


are given autonomy to decide their own research priorities. should be given to research in various disciplines like engineering and technology, sciences and arts.


IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH FOR IITs the search for knowledge.

The IIT authorities have together the responsibility to ensure that the IIT system as a whole develops into a powerhouse of research and thereby makes an impact on the national and international plane.

aid absorption of new developments in science and technology. facilitate appreciation of societal issues and problems in technology management. help translate these into excellence in education

Products of Research


(Ph.D. theses), Research publications, Books, Patents, Knowledge-intensive products.


IIT Roorkee is marching ahead on its course of excellence in step with the resurgent India. The growth of the IT, infrastructure and manufacturing sector is demanding special attention from us in view of our well recognized contribution to national development. -- Prof. S.C. Saxena, Director, IIT Roorkee.

Being institutes of National importance research priorities of IITs have to be aligned with the policy, vision, approach, thrust and priorities of the S&T Sector as recognized by Planning

Commission, Govt. of India in Eleventh five year plan (2007-12)



The research priorities of IITs should be such that they fulfill the objectives of IITs as a whole and individually their own visions and missions In order to produce technologists and scientists of highest caliber, research priorities of IITs should reflect their ambition to become global leaders in field of research.


The research ecosystem involves all research factors, including universities, research institutions and research & technology organizations. In the context of IITs it can be defined as a system consisting of stakeholders and their inter- relationships.

Current Research Ecosystem in IITs, courtesy: Review Committee report 2004.

Faculty Members UG Students PG Students Ph.D Students


Board of Governors Senate Director Deans


External Stakeholders.

Industry Government Other Institutes

Analyze the deficiencies associated with each researcher

Analyze the deficiencies in its linkages with external stakeholders and other researchers

Analyze the role of administrators

Analyze the state of human resources, infrastructure, and financial resources

Major deficiencies are :-1.

Shortage of faculty: The total strength of faculty in all the IITs in 2002-03 (2375) was 27% less than their total sanctioned strength (3263).This points to a quantitative deficiency caused by the retirements of faculty members and relatively lower no. of recruitments.

Faculty Shortage in 2002-03. courtesy Review Committee Report 2004


Promotion policy uses same indicators for evaluating performances of faculty members from different disciplines

5. 6. 7.

Lack of research based incentives for faculty: Lack of foreign national taking up faculty positions in IITs No official policy on grooming of young faculty members in research or awarding research initiation grants.


Inadequate faculty initiation grants (about 2% of faculty gets this grant and the sum is not substantial).

9. 10.

Lack of enough funds with faculty members to attract quality research scholars.

Lack of a balance between science, engineering and inter-disciplinary faculty strength.

U.G. Students
1Lack of involvement in research projects with faculty 2. Little or no credit to contribution of students, in projects of faculty 1. Interaction limited to academic work. 2. Bright Ph.D.s dont take up faculty positions in IITsprefer to go abroad. 1. Lack of awareness of industry needs. 2. Lack of industry participation in teaching 3. Lack of funds to faculty for innovative projects


Ph.D. Students

1. Ego Issues 2. Lack of interaction 1. Lack of interaction with faculty members of other institutes. 2. Limited faculty exchange 3. Limited no. of collaborative papers. 1. Lack of flexibility in disbursement of funds 2. Lack of accountability of faculty in Government projects. 3. Lack of inter disciplinary research

Other Faculty

Other institutes

Deficiencies in the various linkages of the Faculty members with stakeholders

Major deficiencies are:-1.

Low quality of candidates appearing for selection for Ph.D. positions Narrow Mindset of Ph.D. Scholars:



Excessive time taken to complete Ph.D.:

Lack of research based incentives for Ph.D. scholars


U.G. Students
1. Lack of interaction 1.Lack of sufficient job opportunities for Ph.D. candidates. 2.Lack of industry participation in suggesting Ph.D. topics 3. Limited no. of professionals take up Ph.D.



1. Interaction limited to academic work. 2. Bright Ph.D.s dont take up faculty positions in IITsprefer to go abroad.

1. Ego Issues 2. Lack of informal interaction

1. Lack of interaction with Ph.D. scholars of other institutes. 2. Limited scholar exchange 3. Need for further participation in QIP programs

Ph.D. Students
1. Lack of research based Incentives.

Other institutes Government

Deficiencies in the various linkages of the Ph.D. students with other stakeholders

Major deficiencies are :-1.

Lack of inclination towards Research: Lack of flexibility in curriculum towards research activities: Lack of emphasis on practical work in course curriculum: Lack of incentives for taking up Ph.D.s at IITs:




1. Lack of involvement in research projects with faculty 2. Little or no credit to contribution

1. Lack of research component in internships. 2. No formal provision of taking up industrial problems in final year projects.

Ph.D. Students
1. Lack of interaction

of students, in projects of faculty

1. Lack of interaction in U.G. and P.G. students.


Limited number of student exchange programs. 2. Lack of research based Internship programs at universities for first/second year students.

U.G. / P.G. Students

Other institutes Government

Deficiencies in the various linkages of the U.G./P.G. students with other stakeholders

Major deficiencies are :-1.

Lack of transparency in evaluation of research output of IITs Lack of a firm stand on research priorities Existence of bureaucracy




Lack of a policy to promote inter-disciplinary research activities

Lack of aggressiveness and acceptance of new ideas


Major deficiencies are:-1.

Lack of competent technical staff which is well versed with equipments in labs: Institute research funds are not disbursed according to its research priorities. Good infrastructure is present mostly in areas of core strength of the IITs, while other areas are not able to match up with the best.




The research infrastructure present has not been modernized, despite the release of funds by the Government of India, in the form of FIST.

Identify Research Priorities Attract the best Talent. Integrate the stakeholders. Evaluate fairly.

The proposed solutions will be validated on the following grounds:

1. 2. 3.

Role of players:
Financial viability: Time Frame:

Objectives :

To help in identifying areas where commonality of interest may help faculty members and students to get together to work within and across the departments.

To provide opportunities to undergraduate students (from hereon referred to as students) to get exposed to ongoing research and innovation activities so that they may participate in them.


Need for competent students for particular research work\SRIC

Mismatch \ No Mode of Communication

Interest in working in a particular field of research work

Faculty Member


U. G. Students

Implications: STAGES: 1. Faculty cannot find competent interest of 1. Identifying areas of commonality of students to assist in research work. faculty members and students and provide 2. U.G. students cannot work opportunities for collaboration. in areas of their interest. 2. Selection of student by Faculty members. 3. Talent and research potential of U.G. students is 3. Facilitating and supporting quality research work wasted. 4. Incentive for research through fair evaluation

Current Status of U.G. involvement in research work U.G. involvement in research work after STIFKI

Structure of STIFKI
The structure of STIFKI may comprise of a Forum for Weekly Seminar & Face-to-Face Interaction and an online forum. The online forums would compliment the physical weekly forum.

Forum for Weekly Seminar & Face-to-Face Interaction:

This forum will provide opportunity for a face-to-face interactive session between faculty members and students, every week. The faculty members will introduce the research and consultancy projects on which they are working through a seminar talk and suggest a preferred mechanism through which students can participate in the research and innovation activities.

The Online Forum

STIFKI would also allow electronic interaction between faculty members and students. It will have the following features:

A webpage will display research projects currently being undertaken by the faculty. Skills Database. It will also provide personalized features like,
Students List of ongoing projects Faculty List of projects under him

List of faculty members involved in List of students working under him

List of his team members seek faculty appointments Send his reports His own ratings Search the SKILL DATABASE

Updates and reports on the work they

are doing in Send instructions and guidelines The highest rated students Search the SKILL DATABASE

It would allow faculty members to rate students and write recommendations, based on the students research work.

Additional Features and Possibilities:

STIFKI online may be expanded to bring all the IITs on a common online platform, thus encouraging inter-institutional research activities as well.

The Skills Database can be integrated with other institutes thus building a searchable repository of human capital for research work as well as other skill based collaborations.

Students can give their feedback on the faculty members they have worked with. This will encourage faculty members to be more students friendly and help bridge the student-faculty gap.

Benefits :- Faculty members can collaborate with competent students to assist them in research projects. Students can work in their areas of interest and provide valuable contributions to ongoing research. Faculty members can find other fellow faculty members who have similar interests and working in the same area to foster future collaborations. The online platform would allow easy and efficient interaction between the students and faculty members involved in a project. A fair evaluation system based on the research work done by student will ensure accountability, thus reducing drop-out rates. It will provide incentive to those students who are talented and sincere towards research work.

Involvement of students would reduce the workload on faculty members.


To encourage mutual one-to-one collaboration amongst faculty members and technical staff of an IIT with their counterparts in other top international research universities in order to facilitate knowledge and resource sharing for mutual benefit.
NEED AND MOTIVATION :-MoUs are an effective means of fostering academic and research collaborations between an IIT and other academic institutes. But, often we have not been extracting the full potential of a MoU or frame MoUs in a way that they give maximum benefit. Many MoUs have ended up as simple academic agreements on paper without having much practical implications.

Top Research University (MoU with IIT)

Top Research University (MoU with IIT)

Top Research University (MoU with IIT)

Top Research University (MoU with IIT)

Tech. staff Faculty Faculty Tech. staff Faculty Faculty

Know how

Student Exchange Collaborative papers

Exchange through individual informal linkages


Know how


Faculty Exchange Faculty

Staff exchange

Tech. staff Faculty


Formally assigning workmates to faculty\technical staff will help vastly reduce the threshold hampering interaction between them.


the institute level tie-ups will allow for individual initiatives

and the freedom for experimentation.


would be mandatory for each faculty member \ technical staff to list at least

one workmate to ensure the initiation of the process, which will then be selfsustainable due to its symbiotic nature.
Increased Increased Faculty

peer learning and mobilization of resources for both the workmates.

opportunities and exposure for deserving students knowledge base and pool of resources for research.

members can remain updated with the current developments.

Objective 1. To develop stronger relations in R&D collaboration between

sponsoring agencies and researchers, including faculty members in IITs. 2. To decrease time taken by a sponsoring agency in obtaining solution to an R&D problem from researchers in IITs. 3. To increase opportunities in terms of R&D problems and financial incentives for researchers in IITs.

Need and Motivation: In order to enhance scope of collaboration between sponsoring R&D agencies and researchers in IITs, researchers have to be sensitized about contemporary requirements of sponsoring agencies. An online platform allows interaction of greater scope between such agencies and researchers, including faculty members. An organization with dedicated staff for front end interaction, access to R&D laboratories and competency in managing IPR issues would be most suited for role of facilitator in integrating sponsoring agencies and researchers.

Structure of ORDCP:

ORDCP would comprise of following:

1.sponsoring R&D agency like corporate R&D divisions, government R&D agencies, non-profit R&D institutions 2.researcher in IIT such as faculty member, research scholar, scientist, student, etc. 3.a third party for-profit company in role of facilitator to provide online collaboration platform

Structure of ORDCP















To streamline, monitor, structure, encourage and facilitate quality research work

through appropriate research policies and guidelines, drafting specific research priorities and a proactive approach towards identifying and creating research opportunities.

What is RAC? RAC will be a small, high level focused advisory group to be set up at an all-IIT level.

It will have subsidiary RACs at an intra-institutional level at each of the seven IITs
and would be responsible for improving the research output of the IITs

Structure of RAC

Central RAC Five Member Focused Committee Three Members from the existing IIT system Two eminent alumni with a background research and policy making

RAC-IIT_ Dean (R&D\SRIC\ICSR) Dean (PGS&R) Members may be drawn from the already existing Board of SRIC/Research as applicable

RAC Student wing 2 Ph.D. scholars 4 Postgraduate students 4 Undergraduate students

Functions of RACs The subsidiary RACs will carry out the following functions: Set the research priorities. Annually set up numeral targets related to key achievements in regards to

a) research and other scholarly submissions

b) outputs of patents. Annual report. Recommendations to improve the research infrastructure.

Promoting inter-disciplinary research and identifying areas and mechanisms to

facilitate it. A student wing would assist it in working pro-actively with other stakeholders like industry, government and society.

RAC could integrate other solutions like STIFKI, SEM, ORDCP, etc. in order to align
them to work towards a common objective as set by the research priorities of the individual IITs.

To ensure access to the required infrastructure for research, irrespective of its physical location and ownership. WHAT IS EIR? EIR will be a provision wherein a research scholar can apply for a scholarship for a time-bound visit to an institute possessing the necessary equipments or infrastructure, which are required in his research and are not available in the concerned IIT. The purpose of EIR is to ensure that lack of research infrastructure should not be a barrier to quality research.


to obtain projects from international agencies and work on them jointly. of Tax- Benefits for firms investing in


Research Awards

internship at IITs

for fruitful research work during internship


METHODOLOGY We have used the following basic methodology in writing the paper. Beside the reference material mentioned in appendix I, we interviewed various stakeholders and conducted brainstorming sessions to provide us the relevant material for writing the paper. Expert opinion was also used to vet all the solutions suggested by us.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Study the basic objectives and mission of the various IITs, since their initiation, using primary authentic sources, in order to develop an understanding of the IIT system. Study the relevance of research on the landscape of the IITs. Develop basic assumptions about the research priorities of IITs based on the inference from existing literature and discussion with various stakeholders. Study the current research ecosystem and infrastructure of the IITs. Scrutinize each stakeholder and respective inter-linkages individually and investigate its deficiencies. Develop an approach to the solution. Suggest a validation mechanism. Suggest well researched models based on the approach to the solutions and validate them using the validation mechanism. Discuss the suggested models with stakeholders and experts and incorporate the necessary changes, if any.

Relevant Acts
The first IIT- IIT Kharagpur was formed on the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee. The 22 member committee headed by Sri N.R.Sarkar, in its report, recommended the establishment of four Higher Technical Institutions in the Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern regions, possibly on the lines of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, with a number of secondary institutions affiliated to it. The report also urged the speedy establishment of all the four institutions with the ones in the East and the West to be started immediately. The committee also felt that such institutes would not only produce undergraduates but they should be engaged in research, producing research workers and technical teachers as well. The standard of the graduates should be at par with those from first class institutions abroad. They felt that the proportion of undergraduates and postgraduate students should be 2:1. With the above recommendations of the Sarkar committee in view, the first Indian Institute of Technology was born in May 1950 in Hijli, Kharagpur, in the eastern part of India. Initially the IIT started functioning from 5, Esplanade East, Calcutta and very soon shifted to Hijli in Sept. 1950. The present name 'Indian Institute of Technology' was adopted before the formal inauguration of the Institute on August 18, 1951, by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.[7] On Sept. 15, 1956, the Parliament of India passed an act known as the Indian Institute of Technology(Kharagpur) Act declaring this Institute as an Institute of national importance. The Institute was also given the status of an autonomous University. It was later repealed to give way to the INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY ACT, 1961, which laid the foundation of three more IITs (Kanpur, Bombay, Madras) and created a unique framework for the funding, administration and academic development of the IITs as privileged institutions, conferring a high degree of autonomy on the system and protecting it from extra-academic pressures. It was later amended in 1963 (Delhi), 1994 (Guwahati) and 2002 (Roorkee) for the further expansion of the IIT family.

According to the INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY ACT, 1961: The following shall be the authorities of an Institute, a) a Board of Governors; b) a Senate; and c) Such other authorities as may be declared by the Statutes to be the authorities of the Institute. The Board of an Institute shall consist of the following persons, namely:(a) The Chairman, to be nominated by the Visitor; (b) The Director, ex officio, (c) one person to be nominated by the Government of each of the States comprising the zone in which the Institute is situated, from among persons who, in the opinion of that Government, are technologists or industrialists of repute; (d) four persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of education, engineering or science, to be nominated by the Council; and (e) two professors of the Institute, to be nominated by the Senate.[1]

The models and solutions suggested in section 5.3 are intended to cater to the above broad categories. Besides a special emphasis has been laid on the following characteristics of the solutions to make them feasible:

A Emphasis is laid on suggesting solutions which rely on improving existing structures

rather than creating new silos which are both cumbersome and time consuming in nature. B. Solutions are largely modular in nature. In other words, the solutions are so designed that it is not necessary to implement all the features of a solution, in order to use it. Depending on the needs and requirements of an IIT, certain features of a solution may be taken and implemented. C. Most new committees which have been recommended are advisory in nature,

increasing the chances of their acceptance and freedom in functioning.

Need for competent students for particular research work\SRIC

Interest in working in a particular field of research work

Faculty Member


U. G. Students

STAGES: 1. Identifying areas of commonality of interest of faculty members and students and provide opportunities for collaboration. 2. Selection of student by Faculty members. 3. Facilitating and supporting quality research work 4. Incentive for research through fair evaluation

U.G. involvement in research work after STIFKI

Validation Mechanism (STIFKI)

Players The major stakeholders involved in STIFKI are faculty members and students. Both these stakeholders are actively involved and directly benefitted by STIFKI, making it a viable proposition.

Financial Viability
The set - up cost of STIFKI- both physical and online forum- are negligible. The online platform can be developed by a student team as a project. The recurring costs for the weekly forum are also negligible as it simply utilizes already existing infrastructure. Infact STIFKI online can generate its own funds with the help of advertisements and sponsored links.


A list of universities agreeing to implement SEM would be maintained by the office of the Dean, Faculty (IITB, IITK, IITR)/Dean, Faculty & Planning (IITKGP)/Dean, R&D(IITG)/Dean, Courses and Research(IITM)/Deputy Director, Faculty(IITD). Faculty members/technical staff members will be allowed to send as well as receive Workmate requests from the faculty members/technical staff member of the listed universities. They would be required to notify about their first workmate in an electronic database, accessible to other faculty members and students of the institute, maintained by the above mentioned authorities. It would be mandatory for each faculty member/ technical staff member to list at least one workmate. Workmates have to be re-registered after every two years. Workmates might opt to continue or collaborate with new workmates.

What is SEM?
A. Each of the faculty members of an IIT will identify one faculty member working in his areas of interest from amongst the faculty member of contracting universities. On mutual agreement, these faculty members would be designated as Workmates, for a period of two years. A similar procedure shall be initiated for the technical staff members, who would have corresponding technical staff members as workmates at one of the contracting universities. B. The MoU will allow for free exchange of technical know-how, data, knowledge resources, manuals, suggestions on curriculum, views, etc. on a one-to-one basis, as the concerned workmates may deem fit. C. The workmates can work on collaborative papers and projects, subject to mutual agreement. D. The workmates might recommend U.G.\P.G.\Ph.D. students for exchange or internship at their respective universities to each other. E. Each faculty member/technical staff member can have multiple workmates subject to the condition that each of the faculty members/ technical staff member of the particular IIT has already been assigned at least one Workmate. F. The workmates however are not restrictive in nature. Faculty members may interact with any other faculty member in any of the above arrangements as they would have done earlier without SEM.


The main players in SEM are faculty members and other academic institutes. Although it is mandatory
for each faculty member to have a workmate, the flexibility and independence thereafter would ensure that the concept of SEM could be easily accepted. Besides the stakeholders, the technical staff which is an important human resource would immensely benefit from it. Making it mandatory would help even the slightly reluctant individuals to at least notify a Workmate. The fact that they have done this, would itself lead them to utilize it when they need some help. 2. Financial Viability SEM is absolutely viable in financial terms. Maintaining the database of universities and workmates would not cost much and can be easily taken out from the expenses of the authority maintaining it. Funds can be created for the student/faculty/staff exchange through SEM. 3. Time Frame The effect of SEM could be seen after the initial period of two years. Though, the results may vary for each of the seven IITs, depending upon the type and no. of MoUs and of course individual initiatives.

A. Lack of effective collaboration and networking with faculty\technical staff of other academic institutes. B. Ineffectiveness of MoUs. C. Unfair evaluation of students for research internships and exchange, which is currently based solely on C.G.P.A.\C.P.I. D. Lack of exposure and opportunities for students. E. Neglected and incompetent technical staff. F. Lack of resources for research. G. Lack of incentives for students to pursue research work sincerely under faculty

H. Lack of awareness about ongoing research work among faculty members\technical staff.

To identify and attract the best individuals to be a part of the IIT system as faculty members and research scholars. Structure:TSU is further divided into two groups namely:
1. 2.

Talent Search Units for Faculty (TSUF). Talent Search Units for Research Scholars (TSUR).

Need for TSU for Faculty (TSUF): Faculty members and their academic stature constitute the core caliber of the IIT system. It is their intellectual value that drives output.

Need for TSU for Research Scholars (TSUR): It is recognized the world over that the research output of an academic institution is significantly dependent on the number, quality and dedication of its Ph .D. research scholars who constitute the graduate research school.

Structure of TSUF

The TSUF should be headed by a Dean, who is free of other academic duties. The unit should comprise of three dedicated professionals, who might come from diverse backgrounds .

Functions of TSUF
1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Advantages of taking up a faculty position at IITs. TSUF should be able to establish an active inter face with the academics among alumnus and take their help in locating talented individuals. In particular, several bright Indians obtain Ph.D. degrees from some of the world's best Universities such as in US, Europe, UK, Japan and Australia .HR unit by them selves, through their nurtured contacts and with the help of the alumni, should attempt to develop a data base on such candidates. There is also value to have faculty drawn from diverse countries, and diverse academic backgrounds, as the academic set-up, content and demands are not the same in every country.[2] Outstanding professionals in the industry. facilitate faculty exchange. eminent foreign nationals in faculty positions. TSUF should also be entrusted with the responsibility to give recommendations on measures that should be taken to make the faculty positions at IIT a lucrative career option. It might give recommendations on basic facilities required, emoluments given and parameters for promotion of faculty members. For e.g..- as a special case of IITR and IITG, located in smaller towns, measures to build a sustainable ecosystem should be taken. Lack of world-class schools for the children of faculty members, is major deterrent in joining IITR or IITG.

Structure of TSUR

The TSUF should be headed by an Associate Dean or a Senior Professor, who is free of other academic duties. The unit should comprise of two dedicated professionals and four faculty members each from sciences, engineering, humanities and Management.

Functions of TSUR

TSUR has to tap into the vast potential that lies in the top layer of thousands of graduates and post-graduates passing out of the various institutes in the country who have the research aptitude and interest but could not pursue it due to lack of facilities and

exposure. An effective way to do this is to visit various campuses, including other IITs, much on the lines of campus
placements. Although the difference lies in the fact that the selected candidate would still have to appear in front of the already existing research committees of various disciplines, to ensure selection as a Ph.D. scholar. Though, huge scholarships and a very high rate of success of candidates selected through this medium will make the option attractive. The scholarships should be well thought out. For example A TSUR hoping to attract quality students from IITs, would have to offer healthy scholarships.

TSUR needs to project the advantages of taking up a research position at IITs as an attractive career option, through
advertisements and notices at institutes where it cannot visit physically.


TSUR should be able to establish an active inter face with the academics among alumnus and take their help in locating talented individuals. It should help in attracting further talent for the QIP programs, which have been relatively successful.


TSUR should look to collaborate with industry for creating job opportunities for Ph.D. students. It should also encourage industry to send their employees for Ph.D. to the IITs.

5. 6. 7.

TSUR of one IIT should collaborate with the TSURs of other IITs, in order to facilitate exchange of scholars. TSUR should advertise research positions in foreign institutes, for attracting outstanding graduates for Ph .D. programmes. TSUR should also be entrusted with the responsibility to give recommendations on measures that should be taken to make the research positions at IIT a lucrative career option, much on the lines of TSUF.

Validation Mechanism:
1. Players: The main players in TSUs are the IITs administrators who have to make special efforts in order to form the TSUs. But since the formation of TSUF will automatically address the problem of shortage of faculty members, the suggestion would be well accepted. Formation of TSUR would be well supported by the faculty members and departments as it will largely help in improving the quality of Ph.D. scholars. 2. Financial Viability A separate budget needs to be allocated for the functioning of TSUR and TSUF to meet the various expenses. A dedicated grant from MHRD could help start the process. 3. Time Frame TSUs need to be a given a minimum period of six years to prove their success


Lack of high quality faculty members: IITs have had to face a decline in the quality of faculty members. This is primarily due to the inability of IITs to identify and attract talented individuals to the IIT system, who prefer other more lucrative career options.


Low strength of young faculty: The average age of faculty members is quite high.