Introduction to BLUETOOTH and ZIGBEE

What is Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is a short range radio comunication system desinged for communication of devices like mobile phones, PDAs, notebooks, PCs, printers, headsets etc, wirelessly with fairly low power consumption. Designed as a cheaper alternative to replace connections established via cables,wirelessly between two paired devices Bluetooth technology is used primarily to establish wireless personal area networks (WPAN), commonly referred to as ad hoc or peerto-peer (P2P) networks.

The Bluetooth stack has the following components:  RF portion for reception and transmission  Baseband portion with microcontroller  Link control unit  Link manager to support lower-layer protocols  Interface to the host device  Host processor to support upper-layer protocols  L2CAP to support upper-layer protocols

and determines the type of frame to use for sending transmissions. The host contains a processor. Another element in the Bluetooth stack that relates to radio communications is the RFCOMM protocol. The Bluetooth device manager provides for device inquiry and connection management services. the baseband and the link manager establish connections for the network. which supports the upper-layer protocols and communicates between upper and lower layers. the L2CAP. The host controller interface (HCI) communicates the lower-layer protocols to the host device (mobile computer or mobile phone. controls setup. and other low-level protocols. The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) provides the means for Bluetooth applications to discover the services and the characteristics of the available services that are unique to Bluetooth. It sends and receives data. Together. link configuration. The link controller handles all the baseband functions and supports the link manager. The link manager. . identifies the sending device.The radio frequency (RF) portion provides the digital signal processing component of the system. located on top of the link controller. for example). It also directs how devices listen for transmissions from other devices and can move devices into power-saving modes. authentication. and the baseband processes these signals. which allows for the emulation of serial ports over the L2CAP.performs authentication.

. Internet connectivity. mouse and keyboard connections). such as those traditionally used for peripheral devices (e. A Bluetooth device with Internet connectivity can share that access with other Bluetooth devices. . Bluetooth provides automatic synchronization between Bluetooth-enabled devices. a laptop can use a Bluetooth connection to have a mobile phone establish a dial-up connection. For example.g. Wireless synchronization. and wireless headsets and ear buds that interface with personal computers (PC) or mobile telephones. such as laptops. For example. printers.Key Benefits Cable replacement. A Bluetooth-enabled device can form a piconet to support file sharing capabilities with other Bluetooth devices. so that the laptop can access the Internet through the phone. Bluetooth allows synchronization of contact information contained in electronic address books and calendars. Ease of file sharing. Bluetooth technology replaces a variety of cables.

802.Operational Specifications Unlicensed 2.11  Fast Frequency Hopping 1600 hops per second  79 channels  1 MHz spacing  200 μs switching time 6 .4 GHz radio band  ISM band  Used by microwave ovens.

How does it work? Bluetooth technology sends information within your own personal space. . which is called your Personal Area Network or "PAN" at distances up to 50 meters (164 feet).

Scientific. where devices can negotiate and adjust their radio power according to signal strength measurements .• Bluetooth operates in the unlicensed 2. and Medical (ISM) frequency band • Bluetooth employs frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology for all transmissions • Bluetooth also provides for radio link power control.4 gigahertz (GHz) to 2.4835 GHz Industrial.

such as wireless mice and battery powered cell phones. To conserve the power. The specification in Bluetooth ensures this in two ways. most devices operate in low power. Next. the connected devices will always arrive together at the next frequency that they have agreed upon. the master Bluetooth device will send its own unique address and the value of its own internal clock. it specifies an algorithm that uses device specific information when calculating the frequency hop sequences. This helps to give Bluetooth devices a range of around 5 . it's no wonder that Bluetooth devices are usually battery powered.The connected devices however. As a replacement for cable technology. First. To each of the slaves. it defines a master and slave type relationship between bluetooth devices. The information sent is then used to calculate the frequency hop sequences. Because the master device and each of the slave devices use the same algorithm with the same initial input. A Bluetooth device that operates in master mode can communicate with up to seven devices that are set in slave mode.10 meters . must agree upon the frequency they will use next.

.Features Data & Voice Transfer You can use Bluetooth for data transfer or voice communication. or both at the same time Small size Bluetooth doesn't take much space at all. Your phone might have the technology and it doesn't even take more space than one or two number keys. The Bluetooth radio can be built in a small microchip that can then be integrated to any electronic device.

however. • With an upgrade of your equipment. and you can extend that tenfold into 100 metres. The maximum data transfer rate is 724 kbits/s for a maximum of three voice channels (plus data.) . which is great for such a portable technology Bandwidth • You can do more with your Bluetooth.Range • Bluetooth is based on short radio transmissions and the regular range for the Bluetooth radius is 10 metres.

This prevents anyone from eavesdropping on you and maintain the privacy of the link. – Encryption . .This prevents access to critical data and makes it impossible to falsify the origin of any message.Security Measures Two different security mechanisms have been implemented to ensure a high level of security: – Authentication .

. Strong Linking Under normal circumstances you will not be bothered by interference from any other radio signals operating in the same frequency band. And the link stays on even if there is no line of sight between the products.Worldwide availability Use it anywhere.45 GHz band. which is license-free and available to any radio system in the world. Fast Linking You can establish a link between two or more devices before the time that it takes you to read this sentence aloud. The radio operates in the 2.

It limits the output power to exactly what it needs to get the job done. .Intelligent Technology The Bluetooth radio is very economical and intelligent. It only consumes a tiny fraction of the power a regular mobile phone needs. Transmit something to a couple of metres away and the radio immediately modifies the signal strength to suit the small distance.

Power & Range Basic 10m range(0 dBm radio) Extended 100m range(20 dBm) Power classes – Class 1 • Maximum output power: 100mW (20dBm) • Minimum output power: 1mW (0dBm) – Class 2 • Maximum output power: 2.5mW (4dBm) • Minimum output power: 0.25mW (-6dBm) – Class 3 • Maximum output power: 1mW (0dBm) Device power lifetime is measured in weeks to months .

it enables new uses for those devices. . Retail and Mobile e-Commerce:  payment medium for goods and services.Applications in the future As Bluetooth wireless technology is incorporated in more personal mobile devices.  Any terminal could incorporate Bluetooth wireless technology and thus connect to other Bluetooth devices to complete retail transactions.

Medical:  Remote patient monitoring  Wireless biometric data  Medicine dispensers Home Networking:  A mobile phone could be used as a cordless phone via a Bluetooth voice access point (base station)  Portable computers could be used at home through wireless dial-up networking or a data access point .

Zigbee •Designed for low data-rate systems Lighting Heating/Cooling Appliances •Extremely Low Power users expect battery to last months to years •Devices have lifetime measured in years •High density of nodes per network •Simple implementation •Standard in fragmented market many proprietary solutions.interoperability issues .

but optional .Zigbee-Characteristics • • • • • • • • • Data rates of 250 kbps and 20 kbps Star topology.1%) Range: 10m nominal (1-100m based on settings) Location Aware: Yes. peer to peer possible 255 devices per network CSMA-CA channel access Optional Guaranteed Time Slot Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.

4 GHz Band – 16-ary O-QPSK – Sixteen 5 MHz channels – Data-rate up to 250 Kbps • 868/915 MHz Band – BPSK – 868 MHz European ISM band • One 2 MHz channel • 20 kbps – 915 MHz North American ISM band • Ten 2 MHz channels • 40 kbps • • DSSS Chooses from 16 nearly orthogonal PN sequences .Zigbee-Operational Specifications • 2.

Zigbee-Power & Range • Scalable transmit power to meet range requirements • Low power – 1 mW transmit power – 10~20m range • High power – 60 mW transmit power – 100m range .

for example. an environmental sensor may contain separate applications to measure temperature. humidity and atmospheric pressure. ZigBee Stack Level • provides the ZigBee functionality. Application Level • contains the applications that run on the network node. • give the device its functionality . .essentially an application converts input into digital data. and/or converts digital data into output. • A single node may run several applications . routing and security (encryption. • It consists of stack layers concerned with network structure. and provides the glue between the applications and the Physical/Data Link level.Architecture  the software stack comprises three basic levels: • Application level • ZigBee Stack level • Physical/Data Link level  These levels are described below. key management and authentication).

Physical/Data Link Level • The Physical/Data Link level is concerned with low-level network operation such as addressing and message transmission/reception.15.4 standard and comprises the following two layers:  MAC (Media Access Control) sub-layer  PHY (Physical) layer . It is based on the IEEE 802.

a router can act as an intermediate router. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. it cannot relay data from other devices. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. It is able to store information about the network. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. • ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. .Device Types • ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. passing on data from other devices. • ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router).

Protocols • The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. • In non-beacon-enabled networks. . power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. • The ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on. • In beacon-enabled networks. requiring a more robust power supply. In non-beacon-enabled networks.. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. Nodes may sleep between beacons. so as to reduce power use.ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. In beaconing networks. while others spend most of their time sleeping.

smart lighting. safety and security. movies and music • Wireless Sensor Networks — Starting with individual sensors like Telosb/Tmote and Iris from Memsic • Industrial control • Embedded sensing • Medical data collection • Smoke and intruder warning • Building automation . advanced temperature control.Applications • Home Entertainment and Control — Home automation.

Zigbee-Target Markets     Monitors Sensors Automation Control Industrial & Commercial Consumer Electronics      TV VCR DVD CD Remote PC Peripherals Personal Healthcare    Monitors Diagnostics Sensors Low Data Rate Radio Devices     Mouse Keyboard Joystick Gamepad Toys & Games    PETs Gameboys Educational Home Automation     Security HVAC Lighting Closures .

0 ZigBee Building Automation ZigBee Retail Services ZigBee Light Link • Specifications under development . or in the works are: • Released specifications – – – – – – – – – ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.Application Profiles • The current list of application profiles either published.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee RF4CE .Remote Control ZigBee Smart Energy 2.

20 R a n g e WMAN WiMax IEEE 802.15.11 WPAN 0.1 WLAN WiFi 802.16 ZigBee 802.4c 802.The IEEE 802 Wireless Space WWAN IEEE 802.3 802.3c 100 1000 0.15.01 802.15.4 Bluetooth 15.15.22 IEEE 802.1 ZigBee standard uniquely fills a gap for low data rate applications 1 10 Data Rate (Mbps) .

Bluetooth vs Zigbee • • • • • Size/Complexity Timing Considerations Power Considerations Cost Standpoint Solution Prices .

ZigBee Protocol Stack Size/Complexity Application Application Interface Network Layer Data Link Layer MAC Layer MAC Layer PHY Layer Silicon ZigBee Stack Application .

Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity User Interface Group Call Cordless Intercom Headset vMessage Dial-up Networking vCard vNote vCal Fax Voice Telephony Control Protocol OBEX RFCOMM (Serial Port) Service Discovery Protocol HOST L2CAP Host Control Interface Link Manager Link Controller Baseband RF Silicon Bluetooth Stack Applications MODULE .

Timing Considerations • ZigBee: • • • New slave enumeration = 30ms typically Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Bluetooth: • New slave enumeration = >3s • Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically • Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically ZigBee protocol is optimized for timing critical applications .

. .Power Considerations ZigBee • 2+ years from ‘normal’ batteries • Designed to optimise slave power requirements Bluetooth • Power model as a mobile phone (regular charging) • Designed to maximise ad-hoc functionality Application example of a light switch with respect to latency and power consumption …..

Cost Standpoint • ZigBee: • • • Minimum slave cost Minimum software and processing (80C51).11 functionality but with simplified r. specifications .f. no host platform System design for eventual single-chip antenna-to-application realisation Bluetooth: • Low added cost connectivity • Take advantage of host processor power (ARM7…) • 802.

$6 • Price 2005 .5 Bluetooth: • Price Now .$5 Two different solutions optimised for different applications….$1.$10 • Price 2005 .. ..Solution Prices ZigBee: • Price 2003 .5-2.

Bluetooth vs Zigbee .