Atoms and Elements

Definition of an Atom

The smallest particle of an element. Cannot be broken down. Consists of a nucleus and a cloud of particles called electrons.

Atomic Structure

Atoms are made up of three basic particles
 Protons:

Carry a positive charge

 Neutrons:

Carry no charge  Protons and neutrons join together to form the nucleus- the central part of the atom.

 Electrons:

carry a negative charge and circle around the nucleus

 .  Each orbital can only hold a certain amount of electrons.Atomic Structure Electrons Electrons travel around the nucleus in energy shells or orbitals.

Atomic Structure   Protons and neutrons have the same mass Electrons are much smaller and move faster .

Electrons (in their energy levels) make up most of the atoms volume.Atomic Structure   Protons and neutrons (the nucleus) make up the mass of the atom. .

Protons, Neutrons, Electrons

Mass of the particles in an atom are measured in atomic mass units.
Particle in atom Proton Neutron Electron Mass 1 Unit 1 unit Almost nothing Charge (+1) None (-1)

Proton Number
  

Proton Number – the number of protons in an atom An atom is identified by the number of protons in it. Every atom has a different proton number.

For an atom : No. of protons = No. of electrons There is no net charge.

Nucleon Number

Nucleons are the protons and neutrons that form the nucleus Nucleon number : Number of protons and neutrons in an atom.

Nucleon number = No. of protons + No. of neutrons

 Elements are on the periodic table .Definition of an Element  A substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by physical or chemical means.

 Around 90 elements are found in earth.  Each element has a symbol.  .  30 have been made in the lab.Elements An element contains only one kind of atom.

Properties of Elements 1. 2. 3. 4. Structure: the shape of an element Hardness: is the element hard or soft Color: element’s color Luster: element’s shine Density: element’s heaviness Melting Point: the point at which the element melts Boiling Point: the point at which the element boils . 7. 5. 6.

11. 10.Properties of Elements 8. Conductivity: element’s ability to allow electricity or heat to flow through it Ductility: element’s ability to be drawn into a wire Malleability: element’s ability to be pounded into a shape Solubility: ability to dissolve in water . 9.

2 °F) .8 K.65 °C (336.Examples of Properties  Potassium  Structure: crystalline  Hardness: soft  Color: silvery white  Luster: shiny  Density: 0.862 g/cm3  Solubility: insoluble  Melting Point: 63. 146.0 °C (1047.57 °F)  Boiling Point: 774.15 K. 1425.

Examples of Properties    Conductivity: nickel conducts electricity Ductility: copper can be drawn into a wire Malleability: copper can be pounded into sheets .

Symbols for the Elements  All elements are represented by symbols. which are normally the first letters of their names. .

. Most of the symbols contain two letters.the first letter must be capital and the second letter small.

nucleon number and proton number as follows : . The atom of an element is written with its symbol.

A column is called a group. An element is identified by its chemical symbol.Periodic Table • The periodic table is made up of rows and columns. • • • . A row is called a period.

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 Elements in each family have similar but not identical properties. white. sodium (Na). potassium (K).Families Columns of elements are called groups or families.  For example. and other members of family IA are all soft. lithium (Li). shiny metals.  .

 The first element in a period is always an extremely active solid. the properties change greatly across even given row.  In fact.  . The last element in a period. is always an inactive gas.  The elements in a period are not alike in properties.Periods Each horizontal row of elements is called a period.

You can also predict what other elements a particular element will react with chemically.Periodic Table  The periodic table organizes the elements in a particular way.   . A great deal of information about an element can be gathered from its position in the period table. For example. Understanding the organization and plan of the periodic table will help you obtain basic information about each of the 118 known elements. you can predict with reasonably good accuracy the physical and chemical properties of the element.

Atomic Mass and Isotopes    While most atoms have the same number of protons and neutrons. An atomic mass number with a decimal is the total of the number of protons plus the average number of neutrons. some don’t. These are called isotopes. Some atoms have more or less neutrons than protons. .

with different numbers of neutrons. Example : C exists as C-12. C-13(1%) and C-14 (radioactive)  .Isotopes and Radioactivity  Isotopes are atoms of the same element.

 For example. chlorine has two isotopes: .

 5 Table 2.2 below shows several isotopes: .

Thus their densities and boiling points are different. Isotopes of a particular element have different physical properties because they have a different number of neutrons in each. .

Example : the half life for C-14 is 5730years.the time taken for half the radioisotopes in a sample to decay. So if there is a hundred atoms of C. giving out radiation in the form of rays and particles and emitting energy. Half-life .Radioactive Isotopes     C-14 is radioactive – nucleus is unstable. the atom breaks down naturally / decays. . Radioisotopes – radioactive isotopes. 50 of them will decay 5730 years from now.

 Prolonged exposure to radiation in small doses can cause cancer.  .  Large doses causes radiation sickness.Radiation can harm you ! Radiation from radioisotopes can kill body cells.

industrial and agricultural fields involve radioactive elements. These isotopes are called radioisotopes.The Uses of Isotopes 1 Many isotopes which are used in the medical. .

beta rays and gamma rays.The Uses of Isotopes 2 The radioisotopes emit alpha rays. . which are used for various purposes in the various fields.

The Uses of Isotopes 3 Medical (a) Radioisotopes can be used to identify tumours in the body of the person as the radioactive substance collects in the tumour and shown on the Geiger-Muller counter. .

.The Uses of Isotopes 3 Medical (b) Hypodermic syringes and other surgical instruments which cannot withstand heat and chemicals can be sterilised by using gamma rays.

. needs several safety measures to be observed as they can also easily kill healthy cells.The Uses of Isotopes 3 Medical (c) Gamma rays emitted from cobalt . This treatment known as radiotherapy.60 are used to destroy cancer cells in a person's body.

The Uses of Isotopes 3 Medical (d) Iodine-131 can be injected into the thyroid gland of patient with hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid gland) to destroy the hyperactive thyroid cells. .

The Uses of Isotopes 3 Medical (e) Sodium-24 is injected into the body to identify the location of a blood clot. .

. it means there is a leak. If a Geiger counter identifies radiation outside a pipe.The Uses of Isotopes 4 Industrial (a) Sodium-24 is used to identify the location of leaks in underground pipes by adding it to oil or gas.

The Uses of Isotopes 4 Industrial (b) Gamma rays can show the amount of contents in a tin or parcel. .

paper and plastic that are produced in industry. .The Uses of Isotopes 4 Industrial (c) Gamma rays are also used to control the thickness of metal.

The Uses of Isotopes 4 Industrial (d) In the food industry. gamma rays are used to kill microorganisms (bacteria and mould) which cause decay. without causing the food to become radioactive. .

The Uses of Isotopes (e) Gamma rays can preserve onions. potatoes and vegetables as well as delay the ripening of fruits without affecting them. .

their mutated chromosomes will produce retarded offspring. In this way. their population is controlled. . When they mate with female insects.The Uses of Isotopes 5 Agricultural (a) Gamma rays can cause the mutation of chromosomes in male insects.

.The Uses of Isotopes 5 Agricultural (b) Phosphorus-14 is used to identify the absorption rate of fertilisers in plants.

wood and bones of prehistoric substances. . It can be used to determine the age of the Earth. using carbon-14. in this way. is used by archeologists to determine the age of fossils.The Uses of Isotopes 6 Archeological  Carbon dating.

. we look at the proton number. In a neutral atom : Number of protons = Number of electrons The electrons are arranged in energy levels (or electron shells).4 How Electrons are Arranged    To find out the number of electrons in an atom.3.

. The further the shell away from the nucleus. Each electron in an atom is in a particular energy level (or shell).Electron Shells     Electrons are arranged in shells at different distances around the nucleus. the higher the energy level. The first shell – closest to the nucleus – lowest energy level.

Each shell can accommodate a maximum number of electrons. The first shell is filled first.Electron arrangement  Electrons are filled in from the lowest energy level to the highest.   . followed by the second and so on………..

maximum 2 electrons Second shell maximum 8 electrons Third shell – maximum 18 electrons – It fills up 8 first. .ATOMIC STRUCTURE Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or Shells First shell . the next 2 enter the 4th shell. the rest of the 3rd shell fills.

1 and 2.8.8.8.Period 4 .2 .8.first two elements 19 to 20  written out as 2.

1. Dot & Cross Diagrams . Electronic Configuration 2.ATOMIC STRUCTURE There are two ways to represent the atomic structure of an element or compound.

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION With electronic configuration elements are represented numerically by the number of electrons in their shells and number of shells. Nitrogen 2 in 1st shell 5 in 2 nd configuration = 2 . For example. 5 2 shell + 5 = 7 N 7 14 .

8.ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION Write the electronic configuration for the following elements.8.8.2 d) 2.4 2.1 e) 2.7 2.6 f) Cl 17 35 Si 14 28 B 5 11 2.8.3 .8. a) Ca 20 b) 40 Na 11 23 c) O 8 16 2.

X Nitrogen X X N X X N 7 XX 14 . For example.DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS With Dot & Cross diagrams elements and compounds are represented by Dots or Crosses to show electrons. and circles to show the shells.

X 8 17 X a) O b) Cl 35 X 16 X X X X X X X X X Cl X X X X X O X X X X X X X X X .DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS Draw the Dot & Cross diagrams for the following elements.

Patterns in the Periodic Table    Period number . The valency electrons dictate how an element reacts – .number of electron shells for an element. All elements in a group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell – valency electrons.

.Group O    Elements in Group O – stable arrangement of atoms. 8 outer-shell electrons ( except helium ) Very unreactive.

10.8.2 .Elements after Ca  Example : Ti 22 electrons Electronic configuration = 2.

METALS AND NON-METALS  The metals and non-metals are represented in different groups in the periodic table and have very different characteristics. .

Names of families on the Periodic Table .

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does not shatter Malleable and ductile Shiny when polished Sonorous High density Forms positive ions Forms basic oxides with oxygen Non Metals Do not conduct electricity or heat Lower melting or boiling points Brittle Not malleable or ductile Dull Break up when striken Low density Form negative ions Form acidic oxides with oxygen . strong.Metals Good conductors of electricity and heat High melting and boiling points Hard.

Exceptions • • • • Not all metals are hard solids – Na and P can be cut. Graphite is a good conductor. Mercury is liquid Hydrogen is a non-metal that forms + ions C is a non-metal. Diamond is very hard. .

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