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On the Physics of Flight

On the Physics of Flight

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Published by Emil Marinchev
… more → http://books.lulu.com/content/569164
… more → http://books.lulu.com/content/569164

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Published by: Emil Marinchev on Jan 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/16/2010

 
ON THE PHYSICS OF FLIGHT
 Emil Marinchev
*
 Dian Geshev Ivan Dimitrov Stoil Donev
**
 Ivaylo Nedyalkov
*
emar@tu-sofia.bg dgeshev@aero.tu-sofia.bg idimitrov@aero.tu-sofia.bg sdonev@inrne.bas.bg inedialkov@tu-sofia.bg
 Department of Air Transport 
 , Technical University-Sofia, 1000, Bulgaria
*
 Department of Applied Physics, Technical University-Sofia, 1000, Bulgaria
**
 Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy,Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
,
Sofia, 1784, Bulgaria
Abstract
 A universal explanation
 
of the physics of flight, regarding it as a case of reactive motion,caused by the interaction of flying objects and airflow, is presented. The results obtained are exact and valid for all kinds of flying objects in real 3-dimensional fluid. Theyconstitute, on one hand, a good complement to the Kutta-Joukowski theorem and, on theother hand, a generalization of this theorem is derived for low-viscosity real fluid.
Key words: 
 physics of flight, lift, drag, Magnus effect, Kutta-Joukowski theorem.
 
1.
 
Introduction
For more than 100 years the Kutta-Joukowski theorem is used successfully by aeronauticalengineers for subsonic flights [1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 15]. A basic disadvantage of using this theorem isthat it considers the case of ideal fluid, while any flight is performed in a real fluid. The aimhere is to reconsider the lift problem in the case of a real fluid making use mainly of theconservation laws.The following theorems from Mechanics are used:- The momentum of a mechanical system
p
is equal to the momentum of the center of masses
p
c
 
ppv
cc
m
= =
,where
m
is the mass of the system, and
v
c
- the velocity of the mass center.
 
- The reactive force
R
is determined by the action of 
 
momentum flow ( is mass flow,and
u
is the change of its velocity)
 
u
m
m
Ru
m
=
.
 
 
2. Physics of flight
Air flow, interacting with the wing is diverted at an effective angle
α 
(Fig. 1) [5, 6, 10,11, 12, 13]. It is equal to the effective angle of attack for the entire wing.Fig. 1The mass flow interacting with the flying object is denoted by ||. The diverted massflow, leaving the wing is
0
<
m
, and the incoming flow is
0
m
m
>
. As the air flow follows the

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