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Differences in Marine and Land Based Power Generation Application

Differences in Marine and Land Based Power Generation Application

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Published by Chaitra Pm

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Published by: Chaitra Pm on Nov 06, 2012
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Vessel’s power system differs a lot in comparison with land power systems.
 
The main differences are:- Line long;- Compact placement (generation equipment nearby utilization equipment);- One control system and one power system (no sub-systems);- Much less amount of energy transformation.It means that much power is concentrated in a small area. That is why it gives
 
engineering challenge,and requires high accuracy and deep analyses in safety and
 
reliability fields.
 
Marine operationfeatures require choosing and keeping necessary speed and as the result all electric machine isequipped by variable frequency converter.
Comparison of Land Based (Wärtsilä 34SF) and Marine (Wärtsilä 34DF)Land Marine
Reference Conditions EngineTotal Barometric pressure 100kPaAir temperature 25°CRelative humidity 30%Charge air coolant temperature 25°CReference Conditions EngineTotal Barometric pressure 100kPaAir temperature 25°CRelative humidity 30%Charge air coolant temperature 25°C
 Operation in inclined position
Transverse inclination, permanent(list) 15°Transverse inclination, momentary(roll) 22.5°Longitudinal inclination, permanent(trim) 10°Longitudinal inclination, momentary(pitch) 10°
 
Marine engines have sealed fuel and ignition systems. These features prevent fuel vapourbuild up in the engine compartment from being ignited by stray ignition sparks. Theelectrical systems in a marine application are also extremely specialized. In any land basedengines, gasoline vapours that accumulate will readily dissipate through the bottom of theengine compartment. However, a boat with its sealed engine compartment does not havethat luxury. Therefore, any spark could literally cause a boat to explode. All electricalcomponents in a boat are either completely sealed or specially vented to prevent such acatastrophe. This includes the starter, alternator, distributor, and many other engineelectrical components
 
Marine engines need to be stronger because they must sustain high stress levels for longperiods of time.
 
 
Purpose-built marine engines usually have larger cooling passages than their land-basedcounterparts.
Specifications of Marine motors (IEEE-45)
A.
Above Deck
- Totally Enclosed, Cast Iron Construction Only this is what is termed a waterproof motor and requires the following:CORRO-DUTY motor construction with a shaft slinger on the opposite pulley end. Frame surfaceunder conduit box base must be flat to ensure full gasket fit and prevent water entry.Nameplates: "Marine Motor" (Must show full load RPM).In general CORRO-DUTY treatment meets the above deck specification.B.
Below Deck
- All EnclosuresCorrosion treatment - consisting of anti-rust compounds on metal to metal fits, plated hardware,and epoxy painted aluminium parts and air deflectors, stainless steel nameplate, resin and hardeneror equivalent on rotor.Nameplate: "Marine Motor" (Must show full load RPM).For boiler room duty - furnish B-1 and B-2 (above).Open and enclosed "U" frames - furnish Class B and Nameplate Class B, 50º C ambient.Open and enclosed "T" frame - furnish Class F and Nameplate Class F, 50ºC ambient.Explosion-proof - Class I, group D, "U" and "T" frames - furnish Class B and Nameplate Class B 50ºCambient with a 65ºC rise, this may require larger than standard frame on "L" motor.Explosion-proof - Class II, group F and G, "U" and "T" frames - Nameplate Class A, 50º ambient with a45ºC rise, this may require larger than standard frame size, such as types "E" and "EA".4. For normal duty - furnish items B-1 and B-2 (above).Open type - Nameplate 40ºC ambient.Enclosed type - Nameplate 40ºC ambient.5. When enclosed units are required, it is suggested that CORRO-DUTY be supplied subject toinsulation and ambient under item 3-c or 3-d.
Marine Generators:
Marine Generator differs from the ordinary industrial generator in that it is designed andconstructed to withstand the moisture and corrosion problems associated with the marineenvironment. Marine generatorsdo not require self contained cooling systems. They are cooled by
 
using hydraulic pumps constantly circulating sea water through the generator core. Thus thespaceconsumed by the marine generator is less.To save space and make the construction more cost efficient in DE power systems the generatorcould be directly connected to the flywheel of the engine or could even be supplied by factory asintegrated gensets (e.g. Wärtsilä Auxpac gensets). In conventional DE schemes, as electric generatorusually synchronous machine is used.Synchronous marine generators have some differences compared with classical ones.
Typical marine generator has
:- Number of poles: from 4 to 10 (rated rotational speed from 1800 rpm (60Hz) to 600 rpm (50 Hz)respectively)- Excitation: brushless by auxiliary outer pole synchronous generator (DC on the stator, AC inducedthe rotor windings and then rectifying) placed on the same shaft.- Specific mounting standards (usually designed for the chosen diesel engine);- Cooling systems: (open air (standard with protection IP 23), closed circuit with water cooler (withprotection IP44))
Marine Transformer:
The most common transformer types which find applications are:- Dry (air insulated, the typical dry transformer for marine application).- Resin insulated- Oil insulatedWhen designing a marine application transformer additional losses and consequently temperatureshould be taken into account because of a wide range of higher harmonics.
Monitoring systems in Marine Power Generation systems:
Modern primary engines are equipped by a wide range of monitoring systems and gauges for beingable to control the rotating speed, avoiding speed droops, and preventing failures connected withoverheating, loosing lubrication pressure, over speeding or turbocharger over speeding. Such anarrangement is anelectronic speed control systemwhich is built in and is supplied with engine. Thissystem works directly with an actuator which is adjusting fuel injection. Beside the speed regulationspeed
c
ontrol unit compensates droops which occur when load is increasing.Example:Wärtsilä Auxpac gensets speed control unit is adjusted at the factory and droop is 4 % at the ratedload. Speed droop compensating is important to keep rotation speed constant and consequentlygenerated voltage frequency and brings proper sharing of the load between generators connected inparallel.mm

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