Trans. Nonferrous Met. SOC.China
Transactions ofNonferrous MetalsSociety of China
Forming characteristics of thin-walled tube bendingprocess with small bending radius
Rui-Jie($$%$)Department of Materials Forming and Control Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University,Xi’an 7 10072, ChinaReceived
April 2006; accepted 25 April 2006
Currently requirements of thin-walled tube with small bending radius cause the defects such as wrinkling, overthinningand cross-section distortion
prone to occur in bending process. Based on the analysis of the forming Characteristics byanalytical and experimental methods, a complete
elastic-plastic FEM model of the process was developed usingABAQUSExplicit code, including bending process, balls retracting and unloading process, and thus the plastic deformationcharacteristics with small bending radius were investigated. The main results show that:
The utmost deformation feature of the NCbending process is its continuous progressive deformation.
The occurring conditions of the defects such as wrinkling and tensioninstability in the process are obtained. The wrinkling is traditional on the double compressive stresses state and the tension instabilityis on the double tension stresses state.
The enhanced non-uniform deformation in thin-walled tube with small bending radius isdemonstrated by comparing the stress/ strains distributions under the
small bendingprocess, a new method-“stepped mandrel retraction”
improve the bending quality in experiment according to the FEsimulation. The simulation results are verified by experiment.
tube bending; forming characteristics; small bending radius; ABAQUS/Explicit
Thin-walled tube NC bending technology has beenattracting more and more applications in aviation,aerospace, ship and automobile, etc, due to itssatisfactory high efficiency, high precision and goodflexibility[ 11. There are increasing requirements ofcomplex and precise components in the above areas. Butthere occur many defects such as wrinkling at theintrados,
thinning at the extrados and cross-sectiondistortion. Especially, the often needed bent tube withsmall bending radius enlarges the deformation degreeand enhances the imbalance forming degree, whichmakes the defects and forming parameters difficult
is of great significance to investigate theplastic deformation mechanism and
thecharacteristics of defects in realizing the effective controlof the above various defects, especially for small bendingconditions.However, the process is a tri-linearity physicalprocess with multi-factor coupling interactive effects.Many researches have been carried out by usinganalytical, experimental or numerical methods,respectively. But most of them focus on only the effect ofwall thickness change in NC bending process as thepre-bending operations for the subsequent hydroforming.Little literature has been published on aspects of theplastic bending deformation mechanism, not to say thesmall thin-walled tube bending with small bending radius[2-131. Due to the build-in complication, few studies arecarried out to investigate the plastic bending deformationdeeply by analytical and/or experimental methods. Andcompared with the static implicit FE method, thedynamic explicit algorithm can simulate the complexprocess and wrinkling phenomenon with dynamiccontact conditions and large deformation without anyconvergence problem.
in the study, the deformation
Projects(59975076, 501 75092) supported by
National Natural Science Foundation of China; Project(502255
by the NationalScience Found of China for Distinguished Young Scholars; Project by
Teaching and Research Award Program for Outstanding YoungTeachers in Higher Education Institutions of MOE, PRC; Project(20020699002) by
Specialized Research Fund for the DoctoralProgram of Higher Education
MOE, PRC; Project (04H53057) by Aviation Science Foundation
YANG He; Tel: +86-29-88495632; Fax: +86-29-88495632; E-mail: yanghe@nwpu,edu.cn