based on actual sampling of the target fish population and the utilization of statistics tomake an informed guess about the total population (we actually never know the real total population – our estimate is based on reasonable assumptions attached to actual catchesof the species). This informed guess is then used to establish a catch limit. Even if weassumed all of our
were correct, the dynamic characteristicof natural systems means some of those assumptions can change over time. For example,there may be a new disease of
that appears in the target species of fish in a particular season, causing a significant portion of the population to die off due to the newdisease. The disease (an example of a dynamic interaction) alters our originalmanagement plan by changing the total population of fish presumed, thus likely affectingour set catch limit. When this new information becomes available to those creating themanagement plan
occurs, and this learning then sets the stage for changing themanagement plan – adapting management to the newly learned information.The point in the preceding example can be summarized as follows:
natural systems are subject to change at any time.
Because of the constant of change,
also need to be capable of change to keep up with the natural system changes; management styles need to beadaptive.
techniques include a
that allows for
to be immediately ‘ingested’ into the decision-making process. Theingestion of the new information informs the management process in order tomeet the original
of the policy.
B. Role in Environmental Management
From a larger perspective,
allows for a management philosophy (including the development and implementation of policy goals) that providesfor the internalization of
natural system values
, including the
services mentioned in the previous section. Assume the
diseasementioned earlier was caused by bacteria, and the bacteria was in particularly highconcentrations because of nutrient runoff from nearby farms thus causing the outbreak inthe target fish population. Assume further the nutrient runoff used to be neutralized by asaltwater marsh (wetland) that was filled in for a residential development project; themarsh would filter out the nutrients and stabilize them in the marsh environment beforethey escaped into the open waters. Now with these assumptions we can identify thefollowing services:
target fish species
that is directly used by humansfor consumption. Once captured, the fish species is openly sold and resold in amarket system. Thus, the direct value of the fish species is relatively easy toidentify.