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Solution Tutorial 1

Solution Tutorial 1

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Published by ciknurul

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Published by: ciknurul on Feb 19, 2009
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05/13/2013

 
SOLUTION TUTORIAL 1
1.
A piece of copper is dropped into a beaker of water. If the water’s temperature rises, whathappens to the temperature of copper?Under what conditions are the water and copper in thermal equilibrium?
Solution:
The copper’s temperature drops and the water temperature rises until both temperaturesare the same. Then the metal and the water are in thermal equilibrium.
2.
Markings to indicate length are placed on a steel tape in a room that has a temperature of 22°C. Are measurements made with the tape on a day when the temperature is 27°C toolong, too short, or accurate? Defend your answer.
Solution:
The measurements made with the heated steel tape will be too short—but only by a factorof of the measured length.3.
 
Solution:
The sphere expands when heated, so that it no longer fits through the ring. With thesphere still hot, you can separate the sphere and ring by heating the ring. This moresurprising result occurs because the thermal expansion of the ring is not like the inflationof a blood-pressure cuff. Rather, it is like a photographic enlargement; every lineardimension, including the hole diameter, increases by the same factor. The reason for thisis that the atoms everywhere, including those around the inner circumference, push awayfrom each other. The only way that the atoms can accommodate the greater distances isfor the circumference—and corresponding diameter—to grow. This property was onceused to fit metal rims to wooden wagon and horse-buggy wheels. If the ring is heated andthe sphere left at room temperature, the sphere would pass through the ring with morespace to spare.
5
×
10
5
 
4.
Metal lids on a glass jars can often be loosed by running hot water over them. How is thatpossible?
Solution:
The coefficient of expansion of metal is larger than that of glass. When hot water is runover the jar, both the glass and the lid expand, but at different rates. Since
all
dimensionsexpand, there will be a certain temperature at which the inner diameter of the lid hasexpanded more than the top of the jar, and the lid will be easier to remove.
5.
Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of –195.81°C at atmospheric pressure. Express thistemperature in(a) degrees Fahrenheit and (b) Kelvin
Solution:
(a)(b)
6
. What are the following temperature on the Kelvin scale:a) 86 ºCb) 78 ºFc) -100 ºCd) – 459 ºF
Solution:
a) 86 ºC = 359 Kb) 78 ºF = 299 Kc) -100 ºC = 173 Kd) – 459 ºF = 0.37 K
7
. What would be the final temperature of a mixture of 50 g of 20 ºC water and 50 g of 40 ºC water?
Solution:
Heat gained by the cooler water = heat lost by the warmer watermc
∆θ
= mc
∆θ
 (
θ
- 20º) = (40º -
θ
)
θ
= 30º
=
95
+
32.0
°
F
=
95
195.81
( )
+
32.0
=
320
°
F
 
=
+
273.15
=
195.81
+
273.15
=
77.3 K
 
8
. How much heat is required to raised the temperature of 250 ml of water from 20.0 ºC to35.0 ºC. How much heat is lost by the water as it cools back down to 20.0 ºC?(Given, c = 1.00 cal/g. ºC)
Solution:
(a) Q = mc
T= (250 g) (1.00 cal/g. ºC) (15.0 ºC) = 3.75 x 10
3
cal = 15.7 kJ(b) Q = mc
T= (250 g) (1.00 cal/g. ºC) (-15.0 ºC) = - 3.75 x 10
3
cal = - 15.7 kJ
9.
A 1.50-kg iron horseshoe initially at 600ºC is dropped into a bucket containing 20.0-kg of water at 25 ºC. What is the final temperature?(c
w
= 4186 J/kg. ºC, c
i
= 448 J/kg. ºC .)
Solution:10.
How much heat is given up when 20.0 g of steam at 100.0 ºC is condensed and cooled to20.0 ºC?(Given, c = 1.00 cal/g. ºC, L = 540 cal/g)
 Solution:
Heat change = condensation heat change + heat change of water during cooling= mL
v
+ mc
T= [(20g) (-540 cal/g)] + [(1.00 cal/g. ºC) (20g) (20 ºC – 100 ºC)= - 12 400 cal= -12.4 kcal.
11.
How much energy is required to change a 40.0-g ice cube from ice at -10.0 ºC to steam at110 ºC?
Q
cold
=
Q
hot
 
mc
( )
water
=
mc
( )
iron
20.0 kg4186 Jkg
°
C
( )
 f 
25.0
°
C
( )
=
1.50 kg
( )
448 Jkg
°
C
( )
 f 
600
°
C
( )
 f 
=
29.6
°
C

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