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3604 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 59, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012
Control Design and Implementation for HighPerformance Shunt Active Filters inAircraft Power Grids
Junyi Liu, Pericle Zanchetta,
Member, IEEE 
, Marco Degano,
Member, IEEE 
, and Elisabetta Lavopa
 Abstract
—This paper presents the design and implementationof a Shunt Active Filter (SAF) for aircraft power networks usingan accurate wide-band current control method based on IterativeLearning Control (ILC). The SAF control system is designed tocompensate harmonic currents, with a 400 Hz supply voltage.This work introduces useful design strategies to increase the er-ror-decay speed and improve the robustness of the SAF controlsystem by using a hybrid P-type ILC controller. Detailed designof the hybrid P-type ILC controller and simulation results arepresented. The overall system implementation is demonstratedthrough experimental results on a laboratory prototype.
 Index Terms
—Active filters, harmonic distortion, iterativelearning control (ILC), power quality.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
I
N THE PAST two decades the increasing intensive use of nonlinear loads has resulted in a substantial reduction of power quality in electric power systems. Current harmonicsproduced by nonlinear loads, such as power electronic convert-ers and electrical drives cause supply voltage harmonics and anumber of related problems in power distribution networks. Inmore recent years this problem has affected also smaller distri-bution grids like for example in ships and aircrafts. The “moreelectric aircraft” trend, consisting in the replacement of mostof hydraulic/pneumatic actuators with electronically controlledelectromechanical devices, is gaining interest in the aerospaceindustry. In fact, it is expected to provide significant benefitsin terms of actuation accuracy, employ flexibility, system de-pendability, energy efficiency and overall lifecycle cost thanksto the reduced maintenance requirements [1]. Since aircraftelectric power systems are relatively small with a rough balanceof rated power of loads and generators, power quality issuesgrow with the number and size of the loads driven by staticconverters. This is leading to a growing interest in active mainsinterfaces and active filters suited to operate in aerospace ambit.In particular, shunt active filters (SAFs) are generally used toturn unbalanced, non-resistive and distorting loads into equiva-lent balanced resistive linear loads. SAFs have been intensively
Manuscript received November 5, 2010; revised May 5, 2011; acceptedJune 26, 2011. Date of publication August 18, 2011; date of current versionApril 13, 2012.The authors are with the Department of Electrical and ElectronicEngineering of the University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD Nottingham,U.K. (e-mail: eexjyl@nottingham.ac.uk; pericle.zanchetta@nottingham.ac.uk;marco.degano@nottingham.ac.uk; Elisabetta.Lavopa@nottingham.ac.uk).Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available onlineat http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2011.2165454
studied in the literature for 50/60 Hz grids applications andmany suitable control strategies are developed and proposedin the literature [2]–[9]. In [2] a control technique with two-step prediction has been developed. In [3] a stability analysis of the common dead-beat control is presented and a technique toincrease its robustness is proposed. In [4] a selective harmoniccompensation technique is developed, based on synchronousframe controllers. In [5] a resonant controller optimized withgenetic algorithms is proposed. In [7] the authors present arepetitive control scheme based on a finite-impulse responsedigital filter. The application of these techniques in the avionicambit presents specific issues mainly related to the higherrated supply frequency, which deserves further investigation.In [10] a complete model of an aircraft electric power systemis developed using an accurate harmonic cancellation method.A multi-level converter solution is instead proposed in [11] inorder to obtain a good reference tracking with limited switchingfrequency. In [12] an improved deadbeat digital controller ispresented for shunt active filters used for compensation of loadharmonics in aircraft power systems. As mentioned earlier, theaerospace ambit poses specific challenges for both the powerand control parts of SAFs due to the much higher frequency(400 Hz in spite of 50/60 Hz standard industrial applications).Such aspect will be exacerbated in the future when the plannedvariable-frequency-and-voltage operation will be adopted [10].In fact, good compensation performances require a suitablylarge bandwidth of control loops in comparison to the basefrequency. This would in turn require, in a 400 Hz powersupply, expensive high specs power semiconductor devices andmicrocontrollers/dsp technology.This paper will try to address these issues and propose asimple and efficient control solution based on the use of aHybrid P-type Iterative learning control (ILC) together withuseful guidelines for an optimized design. This is a fully digitalcontrol solution that can be implemented using current standardtechnology. Simulation and experimental results confirm theeffectiveness and the reliability of the proposed strategy.II. SAF S
YSTEM
O
VERVIEW
The SAF for this design uses the conventional structureshown in Fig. 1. A nonlinear load, represented by a diodebridge rectifier, is connected to the power network to generateharmonics and emulate a distorted current in the aircraft powernetwork. A Voltage Source Converter (VSC) is connected to the
0278-0046/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE
 
LIU
et al.
: CONTROL DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE SHUNT ACTIVE FILTERS IN AIRCRAFT POWER GRIDS 3605
Fig. 1. Standard scheme of a shunt active filter.Fig. 2. Structure of SAF control system.
power network at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) andinjects the current
i
to compensate for the current harmonicsin
i
l
. The SAF control system is a cascade control loop, whichincludes an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop asshown in Fig. 2.The outer voltage loop controls the energy balance of thecapacitor in the VSC to maintain a constant DC-link voltage(Vdc). The inner current loop takes the sum of demand supplycurrent
(
Is
)
and demand current from the outer voltage loop
(
Idc
)
as the current reference amplitude. This is then multi-pliedbyasinusoidalthree-phase template synchronous withthesupply voltage to generate the current reference.The actual supply current
i
s
can be derived by the measure-ment of the load current
i
l
and the SAF output current
i
. Thecurrent loop then produces a demand voltage to control the SAFcurrent
i
. This demand voltage needs to be subtracted to themeasured voltage at the PCC to produce the reference voltagefor the PWM modulator.According to the scheme depicted in Fig. 1, the SAF experi-mental prototype used includes a standard 3-legs IGBT basedVSC whose leg rated current is 15 A whereas the designedDC bus voltage is 400 V. The DC terminals of the inverterare connected to a capacitors bank featuring a 2200
µ
F ca-pacity, whereas the AC terminals are connected to the PCC viathree filtering inductors featuring equivalent series parameters
Fig. 3. Concept of P-type ILC control.
L
= 1
mH,
R
= 0
.
15 Ω
. The supply voltage is 115 Vrms phaseto neutral at 400 Hz. The switching and sampling frequenciesare set at 14.4 kHz which gives 36 samples per cycle.III. P
RINCIPLES OF THE
P-T
YPE
ILCILC is a linear control technique suitable for systems whichpresent a repetitive behavior; it is therefore a promising solutionfor SAF applications as it provides a very accurate steady statecurrent regulation to cancel harmonic currents in the powernetwork. ILC is based on the internal modeling principle: thecontrol loop iteratively adjusts the output signal of the con-troller by learning the error in the previous repetition (cycle),thus the tracking error of the controller can be iterativelyreduced. Theoretically, within a finite time, the control systemcan achieve zero tracking error [13]–[19].The P-type ILC is an intelligent control structure which canbe applied for the regulation of systems operating under arepeated reference signal (see Fig. 3) [20]. The P-type ILClearns the tracking error from the previous repetition
e
k
1
(
z
)
and uses a learning update algorithm to adjust the control signal
u
k
(
z
)
in the current repetition to reduce the tracking error.Let’s consider a single-input single-output system. ILC canbe used to limit the tracking error caused by a periodicaldisturbance if the system transfer function
G
p
(
z
)
satisfies thefollowing conditions [21]:1) reference signal is repetitive;2) system has the same initial condition in each repetition;3) measurement noise of the output is small;4) system dynamics is invariant.The simple learning update algorithm used in the P-type ILCcontroller can be represented by
u
k
=
u
k
1
(
z
) +
L
(
z
)
e
k
1
(
z
)
(1)where
u
k
(
z
)
is the z-domain transform of the control signaldriving the system plant at the kth repetition, L(z) is calledlearning factor and the
e
k
1
(
z
)
is the z-domain transform of thetracking error at the k-1th repetition. The error
e
k
(
z
)
betweenthe actual current and the reference, and the output
y
k
(
z
)
of theplant are given, respectively, by
e
k
(
z
) =
y
d
(
z
)
y
k
(
z
)
(2)
y
k
(
z
) =
G
 p
(
z
)
u
k
(3)
 
3606 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 59, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012
where
y
d
(
z
)
is the reference signal. If the conditions 1–4 aresatisfied, substituting (1) and (3) into (2) yields
e
k
(
z
) = [1
L
(
z
)
G
 p
(
z
)]
e
k
1
(
z
)
(4)where
[1
L
(
z
)
G
 p
(
z
)]
is the transfer function between thetracking errors in the current and next repetitions. By setting
z
=
e
, where T is the sampling time, the tracking error willdecay to zero after a finite number of repetitions if 
1
L
(
e
jωT 
)
G
 p
(
e
jωT 
)
<
1
, ωT 
[
π,π
]
.
(5)Relation (5) represents the error-decay condition of the P-typeILC controller; the quantity
|
1
L
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
G
p
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
|
is called
error-decay factor 
.
L
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
is the
learning factor 
and includestwo components: learning gain (L) and phase shift. The P-typeILC has to satisfy the error-decay condition for all frequenciesfrom zero to the Nyquist frequency; failing this, the trackingerror may be amplified at certain frequencies. In addition,a smaller error-decay factor determines a faster error-decayspeed. Hence, a good design of the P-type ILC controller needsto determine a learning gain which satisfies the error-decaycondition and generates minimized values of the error-decayfactor at the frequencies of interest [20].IV. SAF H
YBRID
P-T
YPE
ILC C
URRENT
C
ONTROL
D
ESIGN
The P-type ILC controller, in which the control action isbased only on the previous cycle tracking error, provides a veryeffective steady state harmonic compensation due to its repeti-tive action, but does not produce a good transient performance.In particular, it is very sensitive to the variations in the referencesignal between each nearby repetition. In particular, for thecurrent control in SAF applications, a non-periodical demandcurrent from the voltage control loop is added to the demandsupply current, during transient conditions, to generate thereference of the inner current control loop (Fig. 2). The demandcurrent from the outer voltage loop may cause a large variationof the reference signal, above all during initial repetitions andload variations. Given the poor dynamic response of a P-typeILC controller, a hybrid P-type ILC controller is preferred forthis specific application.The hybrid P-type ILC controller is shown in Fig. 4, where aPI controller has been added in parallel to a normal P-type ILCsystem. The PI controller is usually designed by ignoring theP-type ILC term, and by using classical methods like forexample the root locus. Regarding the determination of thedelay values of the memories and the learning factor, furtherconsiderations need to be made.First of all it should be pointed out that, since the P-type ILCcontroller is combined with a PI controller in this application,the
G
p
(
z
)
in (4) does not correspond to the current controlplant transfer function G(z). If P(z) is the PI controller transferfunction, from the system in Fig. 4, the following equation canbe obtained:
e
k
(
z
) =
1
L
(
z
)
G
(
z
)
z
1
1 +
G
(
z
)
z
1
(
z
)
e
k
1
(
z
)
.
(6)
Fig. 4. Structure of the hybrid P-type ILC SAF current control.
Comparing (6) with (4), the
G
p
(
z
)
can be determined as
G
 p
(
z
) =
G
(
z
)
z
1
1 +
G
(
z
)
z
1
(
z
)
.
(7)The learning factor design procedure is based on the use of the error-decay condition. This condition can be represented ina Nyquist diagram as a unit circle with central point at (1, 0).The error-decay factor at a certain frequency is represented bythe distance between the central point and the point on the locusof 
L
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
G
p
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
at the same frequency. The learning factor
L
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
is selected to ensure that the locus lies inside the unitcircle to satisfy the error-decay condition and to minimize thevalue of error-decay factor at the frequencies of interest. Inorder to do so, the learning factor phase shift component is usedto push the locus of 
G
p
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
into the first and fourth quadrantsin a Nyquist diagram, while the learning gain (L) adjusts thegain of the locus to provide small values of error-decay factorat the frequencies of interest for the control (fundamental andharmonic frequencies in SAF applications).In this application, the learning factor phase shift componentis a time-advance unit
z
m
. As shown in Fig. 5, by selectingthis phase shift component as
z
2
, the locus of 
L
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
G
p
(
e
 j
ω
T
)
lies in the first and fourth quadrant; the learning gain has beenchosen as 0.813 to keep the locus inside the unit circle andto minimize the values of the error-decay factor at the mainharmonic frequencies. The memories (Mem1 and Mem2) inFig.4arethediscretedelaysusedtodelaythetrackingerrorandcontrol signals for an entire repetition. As discussed earlier, thelearningfactorphaseshiftcomponentisatimeadvanceunit
z
m
,hence the discrete delay for the error signal (Mem 2) becomes
z
(N
m)
where N (
=
36 in this case) is the number of samplesin one period of the fundamental, while the delay for the controlsignal remains
z
N
. The Bode diagram of the magnitude of the closed loop current control using the direct and the hybridP-type ILC, respectively is presented in Fig. 6.Fig. 6(a) shows the whole frequency band up to the Nyquistfrequency, while Fig. 6(b) shows an expanded view of theharmonic frequencies. In Fig. 6(a) it can be seen that the hybridP-type ILC approach shows a higher closed loop bandwidthwhich provides a faster dynamic response in the proposed cur-rent control loop. Fig. 6(b) shows that the hybrid ILC provideshigher selective effect at each harmonic order.V. C
ONTROL
D
ESIGN
E
NHANCEMENT
There are a few drawbacks in the previous design procedure,which can be summarized in the following three points.

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