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09-Overcurrent Protection

09-Overcurrent Protection

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Introduction9.1Co-ordination procedure9.2Principles of time/current grading9.3Standard I.D.M.T. overcurrent relays9.4Combined I.D.M.T. and high setinstantaneous overcurrent relays9.5 Very Inverse overcurrent relays9.6Extremely Inverse overcurrent relays9.7Other relay characteristics9.8Independent (definite) time overcurrent relays9.9Relay current setting9.10Relay time grading margin9.11Recommended grading margins9.12Calculation of phase fault overcurrent relay settings9.13Directional phase fault overcurrent relays9.14Ring mains9.15Earth fault protection9.16Directional earth fault overcurrent protection9.17Earth fault protection on insulated networks9.18Earth fault protection on Petersen Coilearthed networks9.19Examples of time and current grading9.20References9.21
9
Overcurrent Protection  for Phase and Earth Faults
Chap9 exe 21/06/02 8:50 Page 122
 
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 123 •
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Protection against excess current was naturally theearliest protection system to evolve. From this basicprinciple, the graded overcurrent system, a discriminativefault protection, has been developed. This should not beconfused with ‘overload’ protection, which normallymakes use of relays that operate in a time related insome degree to the thermal capability of the plant to beprotected. Overcurrent protection, on the other hand, isdirected entirely to the clearance of faults, although withthe settings usually adopted some measure of overloadprotection may be obtained.
9.2 CO-ORDINATION PROCEDURE
Correct overcurrent relay application requires knowledgeof the fault current that can flow in each part of thenetwork. Since large-scale tests are normallyimpracticable, system analysis must be used – seeChapter 4 for details. The data required for a relaysetting study are:
i.
a one-line diagram of the power system involved,showing the type and rating of the protectiondevices and their associated current transformers
ii.
the impedances in ohms, per cent or per unit, of all power transformers, rotating machine andfeeder circuits
iii.
the maximum and minimum values of short circuitcurrents that are expected to flow through eachprotection device
iv.
the maximum load current through protectiondevices
v.
the starting current requirements of motors andthe starting and locked rotor/stalling times of induction motors
vi.
the transformer inrush, thermal withstand anddamage characteristics
vii.
decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by the generators
viii.
performance curves of the current transformersThe relay settings are first determined to give theshortest operating times at maximum fault levels and
9
Overcurrent Protection  for Phase and Earth Faults
Chap9 exe 21/06/02 8:50 Page 123
 
 Network Protection & Automation Guide
9
    O   v   e   r   c   u   r   r   e   n    t    P   r   o    t   e   c    t    i   o   n    f    o   r    P    h   a   s   e   a   n    d    E   a   r    t    h    F   a   u    l    t   s
• 124
then checked to see if operation will also be satisfactoryat the minimum fault current expected. It is alwaysadvisable to plot the curves of relays and otherprotection devices, such as fuses, that are to operate inseries, on a common scale. It is usually more convenientto use a scale corresponding to the current expected atthe lowest voltage base, or to use the predominantvoltage base. The alternatives are a common MVA baseor a separate current scale for each system voltage.The basic rules for correct relay co-ordination can generallybe stated as follows:
a.
whenever possible, use relays with the sameoperating characteristic in series with each other
b.
make sure that the relay farthest from the sourcehas current settings equal to or less than the relaysbehind it, that is, that the primary current requiredto operate the relay in front is always equal to orless than the primary current required to operatethe relay behind it.
9.3 PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING
Among the various possible methods used to achievecorrect relay co-ordination are those using either time orovercurrent, or a combination of both. The common aimof all three methods is to give correct discrimination.That is to say, each one must isolate only the faultysection of the power system network, leaving the rest of the system undisturbed.
9.3.1 Discrimination by Time
In this method, an appropriate time setting is given toeach of the relays controlling the circuit breakers in apower system to ensure that the breaker nearest to thefault opens first. A simple radial distribution system isshown in Figure 9.1, to illustrate the principle.Overcurrent protection is provided at
B
,
,
D
and
, thatis, at the infeed end of each section of the power system.Each protection unit comprises a definite-time delayovercurrent relay in which the operation of the currentsensitive element simply initiates the time delay element.Provided the setting of the current element is below thefault current value, this element plays no part in theachievement of discrimination. For this reason, the relayis sometimes described as an ‘independent definite-timedelay relay’, since its operating time is for practicalpurposes independent of the level of overcurrent.It is the time delay element, therefore, which providesthe means of discrimination. The relay at
B
is set at theshortest time delay possible to allow the fuse to blow fora fault at
 A
on the secondary side of the transformer.After the time delay has expired, the relay outputcontact closes to trip the circuit breaker. The relay at
has a time delay setting equal to
1
seconds, and similarlyfor the relays at
D
and
.If a fault occurs at
, the relay at
B
will operate in
seconds and the subsequent operation of the circuitbreaker at
B
will clear the fault before the relays at
,
D
and
have time to operate. The time interval
1
betweeneach relay time setting must be long enough to ensurethat the upstream relays do not operate before thecircuit breaker at the fault location has tripped andcleared the fault.The main disadvantage of this method of discriminationis that the longest fault clearance time occurs for faultsin the section closest to the power source, where thefault level (MVA) is highest.
9.3.2 Discrimination by Current
Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the faultcurrent varies with the position of the fault because of the difference in impedance values between the sourceand the fault. Hence, typically, the relays controlling thevarious circuit breakers are set to operate at suitablytapered values of current such that only the relay nearestto the fault trips its breaker. Figure 9.2 illustrates themethod.For a fault at
1
, the system short-circuit current is givenby:where
s
=
source impedance
L1
=
cable impedance between
and
B= 0.24
HenceSo, a relay controlling the circuit breaker at
and set tooperate at a fault current of 8800A would in theoryprotect the whole of the cable section between
and
B
.However, there are two important practical points thataffect this method of co-ordination:
IA
=×=
113072
.8800
= =
11250 
0.485
Z A
SL
=+
6350 
1Figure 9.1: Radial system with time discrimination
1
D
1
1
CBA
Chap9 exe 21/06/02 8:51 Page 124

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