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Circular Motion

# Circular Motion

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07/02/2013

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Mechanics
Tutorial prepared by prof.Fabrizio Donato
Circular Motion
Angular Displacement (Θ)

Is usually expressed in radians, degrees or in revolution.
One radian is the angle the angle subtended at the centre by an arc length equal to the radius of the
circle. Thus an angle (Θ) in radians is given in terms of arc length (l) it subtend on a circle of radius (r) by:

L=r.Θ

Angular Speed (Ѡ)

It is the scalar measure of rotation rate.In one complete rotation, angular distance traveled is 2
π
(360 degrees)and time is time period (T) than,angular speed
Ѡ=

2
πT
where
1/
= f (frequency).thus, the rotation rate is also expressed as angular frequency.
Ѡ=Θ/t

Angular Acceleration (α)

Is the rate of change of angular velocity. In SI units, it is measured in radians per second squared
(rad/s2), and is usually denoted by the Greek letter alpha (α).

α=Ѡ/t
Relationship between linear velocity and angular velocity
We know that linear speed,
V =
S/t
,
where S is linear displacement of arc, and
θ =

S/r
Therefore, linear speed
V =
(
θ
.
r
)/

Mechanics
Tutorial prepared by prof.Fabrizio Donato
V = r . (
θt
)V = r
ω
Hence, Angular speed,
ω
=
V/r
where V = linear speed
Centripetal Acceleration(
a
c)
Centripetal acceleration points toward the center of the circular path of the train, but is felt bypassengers as a force pushing them to the outer edge of the circular path. This feeling is often describedas centrifugal force, although there is no actual force pushing or pulling passengers away from the circle.
The “centrifugal force” is actually your body’s inertia, or its resistance to the train’s change in
direction:your body wants to continue in a straight line and attempts to do so as the train turns. Luckily, yourbody is strapped into the roller coaster train, otherwise your body would continue in the straight paththat the train was following before it entered the curve. The equation for centripetal acceleration is:
a
c = v2 / r
a
c=rѠ
Centripetal Force
According Newton's second law the centripetal force can be expressed as
= m a

Fc= m v
2
/ r
(2)

where

= centripetal force (N)

m = mass (kg)

Fc=mrѠ^2

Mechanics
Tutorial prepared by prof.Fabrizio Donato
Centrifugal force
An object traveling in a circle behaves as if it is experiencing an outward force. This force, known as thecentrifugal force, depends on the mass of the object, the speed of rotation, and the distance from thecenter. The more massive the object, the greater the force; the greater the speed of the object, thegreater the force; and the greater the distance from the center, the greater the force.
Fc= m v
2
/ r

Fc=mrѠ^2

Video sites for the topic
Chapter Questions

a.
Convert the following angles to radians: 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 150degrees, 180 degrees, 360 degrees
b.
Convert the following angles in radians to degrees:Find the angular velocity of the Earth...
a.
around its axis in radians per second and degrees per second